Introduction of Green Peas:
Green Peas, also popularly known as garden peas is one of the vegetable crops in India and basically this crop is cultivated for its green pods. Green peas belong to Leguminaceae family. Green Peas are used in vegetable cooking's, in soups & frozen canned food as well. Green Pea straw is a nutritious fodder and be used for any animal (livestock) feed.
Major Green Peas Production States in India:- Karnataka , Madhya Pradesh , Rajasthan, West Bengal, Punjab, Assam, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa.
Health Benefits of Green Peas: – Some of the health benefits of Green Peas are given below.
- Green Peas help in losing weight.
- Green Peas help in controlling blood sugar levels.
- Green Peas help in prevention of wrinkles, alzheimers, arthritis, bronchitis and osteoporosis.
- Green Peas source of anti-aging, strong immune system, and high energy.
- Green Peas may help in prevention of stomach cancer.
- Green Peas may help in improving digestion.
Local Names of Green Peas in India:- Muttar (Hindi), Batani (Kannada), Matar (Marathi), Bhatani (Telugu), Pattani (Tamil), Bara Matar (Bengali), Pacha pattani (Malayalam), Matara (Oriya), Matar (Punjabi).
Commercial-hybrid varieties of Green Peas in India:- Early Bejar, Arket, Jawahar and Bonevilla.
Agro-climatic requirement for Green Peas Farming:- Agro climatic conditions are very important when planting green peas; it determines the time of sowing, place in the crop rotation. Green peas grow best in moist and cool regions. Ideal temperature for green peas cultivation is between 10C to 30C. Above 30C temperature may result in poor yielding. Green Peas cultivation requires soil moisture content @ flowering and pod development stage. Ideal rainfall of 500 mm required for its crop growth.
Soil Requirement for Green Peas Farming:- Green Peas can be cultivated in wide variety of soils. However they grow best in well-drained soils with pH range of 6 to 8. Soils with good organic matter will result in good yield and quality of peas. Appropriate rotten Farm Yard Manure (F.M.Y) can be applied at the time of land preparation. To find any deficiency nutrient values in soil, one should perform soil test before planning the cultivation.
Seed rate in Green Peas Farming:- The optimum seed rate is about 20 to 30 kg per hectare.
Seed treatment in Green Peas Farming:- Pea seeds should be treated with Rhizium culture to give higher yields and quality.
Method of sowing and Sowing time in Green Peas Farming:- Soaking the pea seeds in water overnight before sowing result in better seed germination. The green peas are usually sown by broad casting method or dibbling method. Sowing time for pea seeds are dependent on the area of cultivation. In India ,usually Rabi season crop sowing begins from Oct to November mid in the plains. In hills, it would be from middle of March to May end. To get higher yields, sowing of seed during the 1st week of Nov is preferred.
Spacing in Green Peas Farming:- Flat bed layout should be used with spacing of 45 cm X 25 cm.
Manures and Fertilizers in Green Peas Farming:- To make the soil rich and get great yields, add 40 to 60 cartloads of Farm Yard Manure (F.M.Y) per hectare @ the time of soil or land preparation. Inorganic fertilizers like : 45 kg of ‘P' , 30 kg of ‘N’, and 50 kg of ‘K’ /ha should be applied. Fertilizers should be applied in split doses (1/2 dose of ‘N’ or full dose ‘P’ & ‘K’ should be applied at the time of sowing). Remaining 1/2 dose of ‘N’ should be applied after 1month of sowing.
Irrigation in Green Peas Farming:- Frequent irrigation should be carried out in green peas cultivation, again it all depends on season. If it’s rainy season, low intervals of irrigation required. However, each irrigation should be carried out at an 8 to 10 days interval. Usually Pulse crops requires higher water percentage compared to cereal crops. In green peas farming, Irrigation is very important at the time flowering and pod or grain development stage. In case of water logging, make sure the soil drains off well.
Intercultural operations/Weed control in Green Peas Farming:- At about 8 weeks stage, when the pea plants are started spreading, they should be supported by bamboo sticks to avoid any loss in production.
As the pea plantation is done in rows in closed spacing, it is difficult to control the weeds by mechanical methods. Using herbicides is the effective method of controlling weeds in peas cultivation. Propazine, atrazine, & simazine @ 0.60 kg/acre gave good results in controlling the weeds peas plantation. Prometryne at 400 to 450 grams/acre was most beneficial in improving vegetative growth of the plants & yield of pods.
Harvesting of Green Peas:- In general, the green peas pods should be harvested while just short of reaching maturity Harvesting of peas may start as soon as peas started changing colour from dark to green. Harvesting time depends on the variety of peas sowed. For early variety may be harvested in 40 to 60 days, mid season crop can be harvested in 75 days and Late season crop can be harvested in 100 days. Multiple pickling like, 4 to 5 pickling should be done within the 2 to 10 days.
Yield of Green Peas:- The yield will always dependent on farm management practices and variety of seed cultivated. In early variety, an average yield of 30 to 40 quintals per hectare can be expected where as in mid season and late season varieties, yield would be more @ 45 to 60 quintals per hectare.