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Which are the microbes that destroy the chemical pesticides in soil

Lot of microbial organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, algae and other microbial strains are known to degrade the pesticides and they are extracted naturally from the soil and sewage. 


Sl.No.

Microorganism

Species

Pesticides that can be degraded

1

Bacteria

Pseudomonas

Chlorpyrifos, Methyl parathion, Monocrotophos

Bacillus

Chlorpyrifos, Glyphosate, Methyl parathion, Monocrotophos 

Alcaligenes 

Chlorpyrifos, Glyphosate, Methyl parathion, Monocrotophos 

2

Actinomycetes

Micromonospora, Actinomyces,
Nocardia, Streptomyces

Carbofuran, Chlorpyrifos, Diuron

3

Fungus

White rot fungi, Rhizopus, Cladosporium, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium,
Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Trichoderma spp,  Mortierella sp.

Alachlor, Aldicarb,Atrazine, Carbofuran, Chlorpyrifos, Diuron, Fenvalerate, fipronil [63], Lindane, Malathion, Metalaxyl, 2,4-D

4

Algae

Small green algae
Chlamydomonas
Genus of diatoms 

Phorate, Parathion, Atrazine, Fenvalerate


Use of chemical pesticides

Generally the agents or anything that can kill pests are called as pesticides. Pests are the organisms, may be animal or plant which is detrimental to mankind or mankind dependent concerns including crops, livestock and other food providing enterprises. Man has to compete with these pests through out to live himself healthy life and also save his food providing dependencies. The chemicals that kill or keep away these pests are called chemical pesticides.

Microscopic Bacteria, Fungi, Virus, Mycoplasma like organisms, Ameoba which are major pests that can cause life threatening diseases on other organisms including, man, plants, insects and animals. 

Insects are also directly attacking on the other organisms for their living and they are also considered as serious pests. These insects have the capacity to spread the deadly diseases from diseased to healthy. Eg. Mosquitoes, plant hopper, fruit borers etc.,

The plants which are of no use to mankind are also considered as pests many times even though they can be food for livestock. Eg. Parthenium, Cyperus  etc.,

Chemical pesticides are the chemicals upon using them can kill the pests directly or indirectly. The chemical pesticides my affect the pests in one or two ways.

Pesticide

Examples

Target pest

Fungicides 

Penicillium, Carbendazim

Fungi,

Insecticides 

Lambda Cyhalothrin, Melathion

all kinds of insects

Rodenticides 

Zinc Phosphide

Rats and Mice

Nematicides

Fumigants

Nematodes

Bactericides 

Streptocycline Sulphate

Bacteria

Herbicides 

Glyphosate

weeds [Herbs]

Avicides 

Deterrents 

Birds

Growth regulators 

Emamectin

To regulate the immune system to resist the attack of pests


Effects of chemical pesticides


  • Chemical pesticides can kill the pests when sprayed or applied due to the toxicity nature. They may be fumigants which have direct effect on respiratory organs, Organochlorines, pyrethroids, stomach poisons which can kill pests. 
  • The chemical pesticides will simultaneously have ill effects on humans and other living beings. 
  • The effects of chemical pesticides have both shorter and longer impacts. Shorter impacts like headaches, respiratory discomfort, Nausea and long term effects like cancer, reproductive systems mal functions and genetic disorders.
  • Major effect of chemical pesticides used to kill the pests are not completely degradable and many times they remain in the atmosphere, soil and water bodies and may severely cause health hazards to other organisms which are not actually the pests and many times they are beneficial also.
  • Indiscriminate use of the pesticides on crops can carry the toxic materials on fruits and vegetables, which becomes unfit for consumption is another effect of chemical pesticides’ application.

Chemical pesticides use in agriculture

The common pests in agriculture are the organisms which can cause the crop losses. They may be bacteria, Fungi, Viruses, Nematodes, insects, birds…etc.  The pesticides available to kill pests are chemical, natural, organic as well as biological. The chemical pesticides are used to kill and manage the pests in crops’ life cycle. The pesticides need to be used according to the labels of the developer or manufacturers which they provide along with the pesticides. Following table provide the some information regarding pesticides.


Pests

Problems

Pesticide Molecules

Examples

Bacteria

Spots, Wilts, Root Rots, leaf and branch rots, Blights, Cankers, Blasts etc.,

Bactericides – Streptomycin sulphate, Trichoderma 

Plantomycin, Ecoderma

Fungi

Spots, Wilts, Mildews, Root rots, leaf and branch rots, Blights, blasts, etc.,

Fungicides:

Carbendazim, Chlorothalonil

Bavistin, Jatayu

Virus

Leaf curl, yellow mosaic, spotted wilt, etc., 

Only growth regulators and insecticides to control vectors

Micronutrient mixtures

Nematodes

Root knot, root lesions

Nematicides, Carbosulfan, Quinalphos

Marshall, 

Ekalux

Insects

Sucking pests, stored product pests, Leaf eating, sucking, fruit borers , stem borers, leaf miners, etc.,

Insecticides, Imidacloprid, Thiomethoxam,

Acephate, Neem oil

Confidor, Actara, Asataf, Econeem

Rodents

Rats, Big rats and mice for field and stored products

Rodenticides - Zinc phosphide

Zincphos

Birds

Parrot, crows, other birds in the field , the feed on corn, fruits and other grains

Avicides – repellants, 


FAQ's related to chemical pesticides

What is a chemical pesticide?

Chemical pesticides are the chemicals which are used to kill the pests. Pests may be insects on plants which comprise of thrips, aphids, whiteflies, mites, bugs, larvae, and Etc. Chemical pesticides also kill rodents, disease causing pathogens like Fungi, Bacteria and viruses which cause major losses in the agricultural crops. Based on which the pesticides controls, pesticides are classified into insecticides, fungicides, miticides, nematicides, rodenticides, herbicides, defoliants and plant growth regulating agents.

Is this chemical pesticide safe or not?

Chemical pesticides are used to kill the pests which are detrimental to the plants. They are toxic and harmful. So when using the chemical pesticide, the product label need to be strictly read and followed accordingly. If the safety period is maintained in between the using and consuming, the toxicity may be reduced. Unless and otherwise the label claims it is safe, it is not safe.

Is this pesticide organic or chemical?

Naturally the chemical pesticides are made up of chemicals unless the label claims it is non chemical. The toxicity of the chemical pesticide are indicated by the intensity of poisonous nature of the chemical pesticides.

How should I use this pesticide?

Pesticides are categorised based on which it controls or manage, insecticides, fungicides, miticides, nematicides, rodenticides, herbicides, defoliants and plant growth regulating agents. The label which will be provided along with the pesticides will guide how to use, when to use, what it contains, whether it is safe or unsafe, safety period etc. Experts also may guide to the users.

Can this pesticide used with other or it should be single?

Chemical pesticides are recommended in single with the target of killing a particular pest. The combination with other pesticides is not generally recommended. However the one class of pesticides may be compatible with other class of pesticides like insecticide may be compatible with fungicide or bactericide or plant growth regulators and this kind of information is provided in the label of the pesticides which need to be strictly followed.

Can this pesticide used with other or it should be single?

Chemical pesticides are recommended in single with the target of killing a particular pest. The combination with other pesticides is not generally recommended. However the one class of pesticides may be compatible with other class of pesticides like insecticide may be compatible with fungicide or bactericide or plant growth regulators and this kind of information is provided in the label of the pesticides which need to be strictly followed.

Can this pesticide one is enough for the disease and insects control?

One pesticide may not control both disease and insects, separately fungicide or bactericide for any kind of diseases and an insecticide for the target insect must be used. Some molecules might work for both but very rare.

Will this pesticide is effective against the insect?

Pesticides are used to manage or control the particular problem, may be a disease, may be an insect and may be a nematode or any other agent which is detrimental to plants. If the pesticide is an insecticide one is using against the target insect and if it is used according to the label with proper dosage may definitely control the insect.

Will this pesticide is effective against the insect?

Pesticides are used to manage or control the particular problem, may be a disease, may be an insect and may be a nematode or any other agent which is detrimental to plants. If the pesticide is an insecticide one is using against the target insect and if it is used according to the label with proper dosage may definitely control the insect.

Will this pesticide effective against the disease?

Pesticides are used to manage or control the particular problem, may be a disease, may be an insect and may be a nematode or any other agent which is detrimental to plants. If the pesticide is an insecticide one is using against the target disease and if it is used according to the label with proper dosage may definitely control the disease.

How long I have to wait to harvest after applying the pesticides?

Chemical pesticides suggested to control or manage the pests are made of certainly the harmful or hazardous ingredients. The manufacturer will provide the safety time to harvest after applying the pesticides. This would be suggested by the developer and same will be communicated with the users to handle the pesticides safe. Every information will be provided in the label and every one must read the label information before using the pesticides.

Any alternate organic pesticide?

For the target control pest control an alternate organic pesticides may be available.