DEEJAY SAMPOORNA HYBRID COCONUT SEEDLINGS
Deejay Sampoorna – Features :
- Ideal general purpose hybrid
- Early yielder – first flowering within 24 months after planting
- Large number of nuts – up to 250 nuts per annum per palm
- When harvested for tender coconuts, yield improves by approx 30% – 400 tender nuts per annum reported by several customers
- The tender coconut harvested at 7 months contains a min. 500ml of sweet coconut water
- Good kernel and copra content – approx. 210 grams per nut. [21 kgs per 100 nuts]
- Approx. 9,187 kgs of copra per annum per hectare
- Approx. 6 tonnes of coconut oil per hectare
Note: Above results are being achieved under reasonably good management conditions
Package of Practices
PRE PLANTING PREPARATION:
PIT MARKING: Pit marking is very important to get right alignment of palms in rows for optimum utilization of the land space and to provide sufficient sunlight. This would also help cultivation of intercrops,
One of the two types of planting described below is followed:
a. SQUARE METHOD: In this method coconut seedlings are planted in squares of 25 ft gap between seedling to seedling and row to row. In this method it is easy to plan drip design and easy to have inter cultivation. About 70 seedlings can be planted in 1 acre. (175 seedlings per hectare with 7.6 mtrs x 7.6 mtrs spacing).
b. TRIANGLE METHOD: With this design, seedlings are planted in the shape of a triangle, each 25 ft apart (7.6mtrs) giving them enough light and space. This means that the seedlings are 25 ft apart, but the rows are approx.
23ft. apart (7 mtrs). In this method about 5 more seedlings can be planted in 1 acre [13 more per ha.] compared to the square method. A little compromise regarding movement, pathways and the drip system may happen. Do make a choice according to your situation. Remember that the principle is that the long leaves of each palm do not overlap a n d c u t t h e l i g h t f o r e a c h o t h e r. A l s o w h e n t h e leaves do not touch the leaves of the next palm, rats and squirrels find it much more difficult if at all, to move from tree to tree on a continuous damage expedition.
1. PIT SIZE: It is ideal to have a pit size of 3' X 3' X 3' in general soils and in rocky soil the suggested pit size is 4' X 4' X 4'.
2. PIT FILLING:
THE NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF PIT FILLING: After pit digging it is important to refill the pit with selected organic and other material to create congenial atmosphere for plant growth. It increases initial root formation and creates good aeration to the plant. This will also facilitate good absorption of initial nutrient requirement by young seedlings which will help in seedlings growth, quality, girth formation and early flowering.
When the coconut sprouts, the soot gets its mother feed from endosperm as initial feed. After transfer from the nursery to planting area, it will adjust to the shock and grow by still feeding on endosperm. The roots start developing and the nutritious compost and fillings in the pit give the seedling a very healthy and good start.
3. REQUIREMENT OF FILLING MATERIAL:
GREEN MANURE: The bottom of the pit should be filled with 15 to
20 kgs of Green /dry leaves.
TOP SOIL: One foot of the top soil of the land should be put on the green manure as it contains humus and nitrogen and is called “Basic Mother Feed”.
FARM YARD MANURE: Add 10 to 20 kgs of fully decomposed FYM
along with small quantity of pesticide powder such as Polydoil dust
10% to destroy grubs and larvae of beetles.
TANK SILT: If available it is better to add one or two baskets of sediment of tank silt.
RED SOIL & SAND: To provide required aeration in the pits mix red soil with sand and FYM in equal quantities of 10 to 20 kgs each per pit to get best results especially in clay soils.
VERMI COMPOST: Adding two kgs of Vermi compost per pit is recommended as this is the best organic fertilizer that exists and the verms in it helps in keeping the soil loose for longer times. This should be added in the soil area around the seedling at the time of planting.
NEEM CAKE: Add ½ kg Neem cake per pit to control termite and root nematodes.
BIO-FERTILIZER: After filling the pits the top layer should be mixed w i t h 1 0 0 g m s e a c h o f a z o s p h y r i l l u m , p s e u d o m o n a s , pasphobacteria, tricoderma verdy per pit to multiply micro organism for generating digestible food for easy absorption by the plant.
4. FIRST TIME WATERING TO SET THE FILLING MATERIAL: After filling the above said filling material it is important to flood irrigate the pits to set the filling material and to help further decomposing of filled material to assist the seedlings growth in the initial stages.
5. PLANTING THE SEEDLING: The material in the pit should be about 6 inches below the surface of the land and the seedling should be planted at this level. However if the land is subject to flooding or worse - water logging for short periods - then the centre material in the pit should be raised up higher than the surface of the land, and the seedling is planted at a slightly higher level than the level of water logging. Bud rot could otherwise set in and destroy the seedling.
POST PLANTING MANAGEMENT:
1. First Month:
After placing the seedling in the pit, the first step is to compress the soil around the seedling, heap the soil around the nut and once again compress the soil by using the heel of the foot. Provide first watering of about 30 ltrs per plant. If there is the possibility of white ant attack then apply Sevidol 8G (5gram) around the plant. Spray Blue copper [fungicide] mixed in water (5 gram blue copper in 1 ltr water). This spray should not be done during hot sunlight. Before the second watering, once again compress the soil around the seedling, so that later settling of the soil will not leave the seedling exposed. Subsequent watering should be about 60 ltrs per plant once in two days in red soil, once in four days in clay soil and in sandy soil 30 ltrs. per day. In case of drip irrigation, it is essential to maintain at least two drip points per plant. After 20 days one manual weeding will need to be done. Provide shade if planting is done in the summer or when the sun is hot. To reduce shock and to avoid scorching by the sun, it is advisable to sow 200 gram of sun hemp seeds around the seedling in the basin. Being leguminous the soil is fertilized and when too tall the hemp should be cut and mulched in the same basin. Watering the plant should always be half a foot away from the seedling. In case of planting in coastal regions just before monsoon setting, it is advised to spray Blue Copper or Bordeaux mixture once in ten days during the monsoons to avoid fungus attack.
2. Second Month:
Check the soil moisture regularly and continue applying 30 ltrs of water per day per seedling subject to rainfall during the seasons. Close inspection of plant is required to identify any fungus attack. If any abnormality is noticed, then spray fungicide of Blue copper and pesticide of Monocrotophos on the seedlings once in a month up to eighth month in the ratio of 5ml per ltr of water. Manual tilting of the soil around the seedlings and removal of weeds is required to be done.
3. Third Month:
Continue watering and fungicide application as indicated for the second month.
4. Fourth Month:
Continue spraying of fungicides and soil tilting work for weed control. Hereafter increase the quantity of water from 30 ltrs to 40 ltrs per palm per day. It is important to maintain soil moisture at a minimum of
40 % and maximum 80% to develop the root zone and to absorb the nutrients effectively. At this stage apply first dose of fertilizer NPK by mixing N-130gms, P-200gms, K-200gms along with 10kgs of FYM and
1.25kgs of Neem cake per palm. NPK must be spread properly in the basin half feet away from Girth region and in one feet width of service area and apply water to wet the soil but do not flood the basin. In case of drip irrigation apply manure and fertilizers at the place where water is disbursed from the drip points. At this stage one can observe starting of leaf splitting, which means good management.
5. Fifth Month:
Continue spraying of pesticide, fungicide, weed control and tilting of soil around the basin and usual watering. This is the time to control the worms and Rhinoceros beetle attack on the young palms. To control this apply mixture of Sevidol or Phorate (Thimet 10G) + Neem cake + river sand in between leaf axil of 2 to 3 bottom leaves. Mixing ratio is
1kg of Phorate + 10kgs Neem cake + 5kgs fine river sand. Mix the quantity as per the requirement. Alternately naphthalene balls can be placed at the leaf axil and cover it with fine sand. For complete control of beetle attack, it is recommended to place pheromone traps near the borders of the land to avoid beetle entry into the planting area.
6. Sixth Month:
Continue monthly spray of pesticide, fungicide, and weed control around basin. If any leaf eating worms like the size of a finger, called Black Headed Caterpillar, normally found under the leaflets, then immediately spray Monocrotophos or any systemic pesticide to control worm attack on leaves. A good management will notice complete leaves splitting at this stage which implies symptoms of early flowering. At this stage measurement of girth, number of leaves, number of leaflets in one leaf, leaf length and height of the seedlings needs to be checked and recorded for each seedling. The ideal growth indicates a minimum of 30cm girth, about seven leaves, leaf length of above three feet and about six feet height of the plant.
7. Seventh Month:
At this stage extend the basin and water the seedling one foot away from the girth area. Between one and three feet from the girth is the ideal zone for applying water and manure to encourage spreading of root zone. Wet this part of the basin area fully to raise the moisture level which will help root spreading to absorb the nutrient from wider area to enhance seedling growth. Have a regular check on seedlings for possible pest attack. If beetle attack is noticed use iron hooks to remove them from axil area of the plant and immediately apply the medicine (mixture of 5gms of Blue copper plus 5ml of Monocrotophos) to control the rotting of wounded area. If any stunted growth is noticed in any seedling, then apply 100gms of Borax around the basin and apply water immediately to bring them back to the level of other plants.
8. Eighth Month:
Continue with recommended watering and spray of pesticide and check the seedlings daily against any beetle and pest attack. If required, apply phorate mixture and fungicide to control minor pest. Apply second dose of NPK fertilizer by mixing N-170gms,
P-200gms and K-250gms per palm in service area of the basin an
irrigate immediately. In case of drip irrigation increase the drip points from two to four per palm to cover all four sides of the basin area.
9. Ninth Month:
From this stage fungal problems are very minimal. Hence the use of fungicide can be reduced. But the use of pesticide spray should be continued to prevent pest attacks such as Leaf eating caterpillar and scales. Sufficient moisture levels in the b a s i n n e e d t o b e maintained regularly.
10. Tenth Month:
As this is important growing stage of the seedling it is essential to ensure that the basin area moisture of minimum 40% to a maximum of 80% is maintained regularly. Regular check of the seedling is required against pest and beetle attack. If required Increase pheromone traps to trap beetles but ensure that these pheromone traps are kept on the border of the land to avoid entry of beetles to the middle of the land.
11. Eleventh Month:
Basin management through weed control, soil tilting is required to be done. Check for pest and decease attack. Look out for uneven growth in plants to provide extra dose of fertilizers for generating even growth throughout the garden.
12. Twelfth Month:
Third dose of fertilizer application is due in this month. Apply NPK of N-200gms, P-200gms, K-250gms per palm by spreading in the s e r v i c e area of the basin and irrigate the basin immediately.Do keep in mind that in case of drip irrigation, manure and fertilizers need to be applied at the point where water discharge from drip points takes place. Plant growth measurement also needs to be checked at this stage. Ideal growth parameters under good management are, tree height of 12.5 ft, girth of
2.9ft, leaf length of 9.5ft and number of leaves of about 15 with about
13. Thirteenth Month:
Ensure normal maintenance of basin area and watch out for any abnormalities in tree growth. Look out for slug caterpillar attack of leaflets from this month to twentieth month. If found any attack, spray with
1:5 ratio of Helthane or Matasystax pesticide mixture.
14. Fourteenth Month:
Ensure soil tilting in basin area and check for any insects attack to t h e plants.
15. Fifteenth Month:
Extend basin area to five feet radius from girth and ensure that water and manure application is done two feet away from the girth. Apply fourth dose of NPK fertilizer by mixing N-250gms, P-300gms, K-
375gms mixed with 15kgs of FYM and 1.250kgs of Neem cake p e r p a l m p r o p e r l y m i x e d w i t h t h e s o i l i n t h e b a s i n a n d i r r i g a t e immediately.
16. Sixteenth Month:
At this stage the trunk formation starts. Beetle attraction is more at this point of time. Hence it is important that extra care is taken to eliminate beetle attack by applying Sevidol or Phorate (Thimet 10G) + Neem cake + river sand mixture in the middle part of the stem in three or four axils. Effective water management is important to avoid water stress.
17. Seventeenth Month:
Continue basin management by tilting the soil and weed control. Apply water to completely cover the service area of the basin to help the tree absorb more nutrients from this area for better growth. Increase irrigation to a level of an average of 75 ltrs of water per day per palm.
18. Eighteenth Month:
At this stage apply fifth dose of NPK fertilizer by mixing N-300gms, P-250gms, K-425gms per palm by spreading it in basin area and irrigate the basins. Check the tree against pest and disease attacks, if required spray pesticide (Monocrotophos 1:5 ratio).
19. Nineteenth Month:
At this age some trees are ready to flower. Concentrate on water management and Basin weed control. Check the trees for any beetle or scales attack. To control scales spray Monocrotophos or any other systemic pesticide (1:5 ratio).
20. Twentieth Month:
This month, wet the basin fully and tilt the basin soil. Make bund of 1 foot height around the basin and dump all greens in to the basin to increase humus level around the basin. Spray pesticide to control minor pests like leaf eating caterpillar and leaf blight etc. Release parasite to control caterpillar though bio control method or spray Monocrotophos or Metasistax (1:5 ratio).
21. Twenty First Month:
At this age apply sixth dose of NPK fertilizer by mixing N-300gms, P-250gms, K-375gms by properly spreading in the basin and mixing it with soil. Apply irrigation immediately,
22. Twenty Second Month:
At this stage extend basin up to 2mtrs radius (6 feet from girth). In this 6 feet, 2 feet radius from the girth should be left idle and other
4 feet radius is used as service area to apply manure and water.
23.Twenty Third Month:
At this stage all trees are ready to start flowering, Hence good care of tree is required by applying regular watering in the service area of the basin. Ensure that water and manure is not applied in the 2 feet area from the girth to encourage root spread to the service area and to enable the tree to get sufficient nutrients from wider area. Apply r e q u i r e d quantity of mixture of Phorate-1 kg Neem cake- 10 kg River sand 5 kg into the leaf axils to avoid beetle attack and spray pesticides like Monocrotophos 1:5 ratio or Nimicidin 5ml + garlic extract 5ml + soap liquid
2ml mixed in one ltr of water to control Eriophid - mite, and Libid attack in young spathes.
24.Twenty Fourth Month:
From this age trees are treated as adult trees and coconut yields start stabilizing. Hence full dose of manure and watering would be required for the trees. Apply seventh dose of manure N-350gms, P-400gms, K-550gms. If abnormal shredding of buttons is noticed, then go for foliar spray of 1:5 ratio of Plonofix or 10 grms Borax mixed in 1ltr of water.
After twenty four months, for ideal performance, apply an average of 100 ltrs of water per day per palm and fertilizer of 2.5kgs of nitrogen, 2kgs of phosphate, 3.5kgs of muriate of potash and a minimum of 50kgs FYM, 2kgs of neem cake in a year. These fertilizers to be divided into four doses and applied every quarter for continuous nutrition availability to the plant. In addition to this, apply 2 5 0 g m s e a c h o f azosphyrillum, pseudomonas, and pasphobacteria once in six months to improve soil fertility though bio methods.
Requirement of micronutrient for coconut cultivation is based on the soil texture and inadequacy of micronutrient in the soil. Micronutrient is essential to convert major nutrient into digestible form. It also helps in producing quality nuts and good button setting and helps photosynthesis activity. Following are the micronutrients generally applied for coconut cultivation. It is suggested to get the soil tested before deciding on the quantity of usage.
1. Magnesium Sulphate (MgSo4):
This helps in production of good starch and to avoid lethal yellowing disease in coconut trees.
If yellowing of leaves is found or lack of spathe production or shorter leaves apply 250gms of Magnesium Sulphate once in every six months for adult trees and to solve stunted growth problem in seedlings upto 10 months apply 100gms once in six months through soil application.
This helps in reduction of abnormal shredding of buttons and fused leaves and uneven size of nuts.
For soil application, 200gms of borax per tree per year is required to be applied in two split doses (once in 45 days).
3. Zinc :
This helps in good button setting, kernel & oil formation, good leaf formation in coconut trees.
Apply 200gms per year per tree for soil application.
Suggestion: Regular application of organic manures such as FYM, Vermi compost, Greens etc. reduces the need for usage of inorganic micronutrients.
To improve soil texture, it is recommended to grow Sun hemp / Cow pea / Calopogonium in the basin area once a year and mulch it with soil to minimize adverse effect of water quality. This would make the soil loose to improve aeration to the root zone resulting in good absorption of micro nutrients.
Organic farming is being practiced for all crops and some farmers are following this for coconut as well. However, the results of yields under organic farming for coconuts have not been verified and established as on date. Hence it is recommended to follow the above stated method of mixing organic and inorganic fertilizers to reap optimum yields and at the same time improving the soil texture.
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