The indiscriminate use of inorganic chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture has led to cause detrimental issues with respect to natural ecosystem. Many beneficial resources have been killed directly or indirectly in soil as well as atmosphere.
Haphazard application of inorganic fertilisers have caused soil and water pollution, causing deterioration of the diverse beneficial microorganism and population in the soil. Organic Farming is catching scope in present day with the help of natural resources.
The relationship with plant growth and development with soil beneficial microorganisms is very much essential and without microorganisms in soil the plant cannot complete the life cycle.
Soil Beneficial Microorganisms
Beneficial microorganisms in soil are cellular creatures those have symbiotic associations with plant roots (rhizobia, mycorrhizal fungi, actinomycetes, diazotrophic bacteria), promote nutrient mineralization and availability, produce plant growth hormones, and are antagonists of plant pests, parasites or diseases (biocontrol agents).
The microorganisms which promote nutrient availability and produce plant growth hormones are grouped to Biofertilisers.
Biofertilisers: Plant Nutrient Potential
Biofertilisers belong to nitrogen nutrient-fixing, phosphate-solubilising microorganisms, Zinc nutrient mobilizing bacteria, and others.
Nitrogen biofertilisers fix atmospheric nitrogen into soil in the available forms which can be readily usable by plants. These include Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, blue-green algae (BGA), and Azolla. The Rhizobium group of biofertilisers requires symbiotic association with the root nodules of legumes to fix nitrogen; others can fix nitrogen independently.
Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms is said to secrete various organic acids which enhances the uptake of phosphorus nutrient by plants converting non-dissolvable complex compound phosphates to dissolved available simple phosphatic compounds.
Importance of Biofertilisers in Organic Agriculture
Reclamation of soil with addition of biofertilisers in agriculture plays major role in improving soil parameters like fertility, nutrient dynamics, decomposition of crop residues and organic matter, soil microbial fauna and flora population and ultimately enhancing the soil health and crop yield.
Sometimes biofertilisers helps in reducing the requirement of chemical fertilizers during a particular crop production.
Reports from research oriented works have illustrated some conclusions
- Use of Rhizobium biofertilisers in pulse crops have significantly enhanced the agronomic yield attributes in cooler temperatures.
- Use of Azospirillum, biofertilisers in cereal crops have improved the leaf area and yield attributes.
3. Azotobacter chroococcum biofertilisers have positive impact on growth and development in maize and Wheat crops and have increased yield significantly when compared to control plots without Azatobacter biofertiliser.
4. The biofertilisers also enhances the soil alkaline phosphatase activity and other enzymatic activities.
Constraints for Effectiveness of Biofertilisers
- Proper extra care need to be taken in packaging, transportation, mode of application, time of application and storage are required for better effectiveness of biofertilisers.
- The quality of carrier material of biofertilisers affects the shelf life and need to be taken care.
- Skilled man power is required while applying the biofertilisers for better efficacy.
- During fermentations the biofertilisers may undergo mutations and performance maybe hindered.
- Little awareness among the farmers regarding the biofertilisers is also important constraint in avoiding the utilization.
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