Potato (Solanum tuberosum) crop is propagated through seed tubers and they are sowed or planted as whole tubers with certain size or bigger sized tubers are cut into pieces with 3-4 healthy sprouts. Seed borne diseases are common in potato growing soils and the most regular diseases are black leg, black scurf, dry roots etc.
Favourable growing conditions for the above diseases is more or less similar to the growth conditions required for potato tubers like temperature between 10°C and 25°C, high humidity, medium pH, etc.
Common pathogens invasion on potato seed tubers which can cause crop losses.
1. SOFT ROT (caused by Erwinia carotovora)
Soft rot disease infected seed potato tubers will possess creamy coloured rotten tissues soft to touch some times granulation of infected areas is noticed with black border to differentiate healthy and infected tissues.
The infected tubers emit very bad foul smell. This bacterial disease may spread to healthy tubers when in contact with and also during the seed tubers are cut to plant or sow.
2. COMMON SCAB (Streptomyces scabies)
Common symptoms of scab symptoms are seen as rough lesions raised over the skin surface ans sometimes even the lesions are sunken. Uneven sunken and corky tissues are observed on the surface of the tubers inside the soil.
Infected tubers cannot be seen until they are dug up or harvested and the above ground symptoms are not noticed.
3. BLACK SCURF (Rhizoctonia solani)
The seed tubers infected by rhizoctonia have black sclerotia which will be irregular lumps stuck to the skin of the tubers. The type of sclerotia germinate and develops to dark brown cankers. The uncontrolled germination or sporulation of the fungi damages the potato sprouts severely.
Some infected tubers may also sprout but will be less vigorous and final yield will be drastically.
4. Fusarium dry rot (Fusarium spp)
Fusarium dry rot is the common seed tuber disease and the seed tubers may completely get decayed completely. Sometimes the partially infected seed tubers or pieces are planted a single sprout may where the yield in that particular plant is very low and of poor quality.
Sunken shriveled spots or lesions with concentric wrinkles, and the tissue inside the tuber will be rotten and dried with brown or grey to black colour.
5.BLACKLEG (Pectobacterium atrosepticum)
Symptoms of black leg on potato tubers are sunken, circular, black, rotted lesions starting from the stem of the tuber to the end the pith.
The colour of the infected area is normally cream coloured and may turn darker later. The bad smell from the infected tubers is more common.
Management of soil borne diseases of Potato
Seed potato tubers’ treatments with pathogen killing agents may help reduce soil borne disease. Farmers usually try some seed treatment practices to kill the disease pathogens, prevent their spread and reduce the diseases during growth and development stages of potato crop.
Different combinations of fungicides, bactericides and root growth promoters may be used for the potato seed tuber treatment.
Potato seed tuber Kit - 1
Potato seed tuber Kit - 2
Carbendazim [Bengard] 2-3 gm/L + Streptomycin sulphate=9% +Tetracycline Hydrochlorine=1%[Plantomycin] 0.5 gm/L + Jivras 5 ml/L of water
Potato seed tuber Kit - 3 Organic treatment
Biological products for potato seed tuber treatment
Methodology of seed tuber treatment
- Mix all the disease control and growth promoting agents in required quantity of water.
- Dip the potato seed tubers or potato seed tuber cut slices in the mixture for 10 min.
- Allow them to dry before sowing in the field.
- The mixture once mixed with agents will be effective only for the first three dippings.
Precautions for potato seed tuber treatment
- Use only recommended dose of disease control and growth promoter agents.
- Reduced dosage may not serve the purpose.
- The disease control agents in dust formulations will work more effectively and it is reported that liquid formulations may increase the disease.
- See that high-quality potato seed tubers are chose to plant.
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Disclaimer: The performance of the product (s) is subject to usage as per manufacturer guidelines. Read enclosed leaflet of the product(s) carefully before use. The use of this product(s)/ information is at the discretion of user.
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