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Package of practices for Mango Cultivation

Posted by BigHaat India on

MANGO(Mangifera indica L.)

Climate

            Mango is well adapted to tropical climate. High humidity and cloudy weather at the time of flowering are not favourable as they affect pollination and fruit set and encourage diseases. Rains during flowering are detrimental to the crop.

Soils

            Alluvial and sandyloams are ideal for mango cultivation. It can be grown even on lighter soils like chalkas and dubbas when properly manured. Alkaline and saline soils should be avoided. The most desirable soils for mango should be of medium texture, deep (2 to 2.5 m) well drained with low water table (below 180 cms in all seasons) and have a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5. Mango cannot tolerate high soil salt content (not more than 0.05 %).

Varieties

Banganpalli (Baneshan),Totapari (Bangalora, Collector, Chittoor mamidi) ,Suvarnarekha (Sundari, Lal Sundari) ,Neelum ,Dashehari ,Peddarasam ,Chinnarasam ,Navaneetham.   

Planting Material

Mango is commercially propagated by Veneer grafting. One or two year old veneer grafts should be collected from an authentic source. The grafts should have a minimum of 4 whorls of leaves with strong graft union.

Planting and spacing

The plantation of mango should be taken up at the beginning of the monsoon (June- July). In areas with heavy rainfall planting should be done at the end of rainy season. The pit of size 1m x 1m x 1m should be dug and filled with top soil, well mixed with 25 kg farmyard manure and 2 kg superphosphate and 100 gm of Folidol powder to avoid termite damage. Planting distances can be around 7 to 10 meters depending on soil depth and vigour of the variety planted. Even 12 meters spacing may be necessary in very deep and fertile soils.  The graft should be planted with ball of earth and press the soil all around the base. The graft joint should be above ground level. Stake the plant to prevent wind damage. Remove root-stock sprouts below the graft joint.

Manures and fertilizers

To improve the texture of soils, add adequate tank silt and FYM. Sowing of the green manure crop (20 kg sun hemp/10 kg diancha/acre) with the onset of monsoon Fertilizer and incorporating 45 days after sowing.

10kg FYM, 2.5kg bonemeal, 1kg  Potassium sulphate NPK to the plant 1 yr

100gm each, 2 yr 200gm each, 5 yr 500gm each

 

   Fertilizers should be applied through placement in circular trenches around the trunk. For the 10 years age and above trees the fertilizer should be applied at 1.5 m away from the trunk.

  • For the correction of micronutrient deficiency, spraying of ZnSO4 5 g , Boran 2 g and 10  g urea per liter of water is recommended at the onset of monsoon.
  • Spraying of KNO3 @ 10 g/l during November helps in opening of the flower bud and uniform flowering.

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Pruning

Pruning to remove criss –cross branches may be done so that center of the tree is opened out and inner branches are exposed to sunlight. Pruning of the dried twigs and branches should be done with pruning saw during June-July. Pruning in mango encourages production of new shoots.

Intercultivation

Inter crops like vegetables, low growing field crops and fruits like Phalsa or Papaya can be profitably grown in alleys in young orchards. Red gram is not advisable as it is an alternative host to mealy bug. In old orchards shade tolerating crops like ginger, turmeric etc., can be taken.

Two ploughing in the inter spaces, once at the beginning and another at the end of the monsoon  keep the orchard weed free and facilitate rain water percolation.

Pruning

Pruning to remove criss –cross branches may be done so that center of the tree is opened out and inner branches are exposed to sunlight.

Irrigation

Mango responds well to irrigation, particularly at fruit set and developmental phases. The young plants at bearing stage should be irrigated frequently.

  • In bearing trees, for obtaining good flowering, irrigation must be stopped at least 2 months before flowering period. Stopping of irrigation creates stress and encourages flower bud formation.
  • Irrigation should be given fruit set and thereafter at regular intervals during fruit development period, beginning from fruit set stage to full development stage.
  • For better quality irrigation should be stopped 20-30 days before maturity/harvesting the crop.
  • As far as possible irrigation should be give with drip system. Drip irrigation not only conservers water but also increases water use efficiency.
  • For conservation of rain water, rows (in rectangular system of planting) should be along the contour in sloppy locations.

 

Fruit Drop

Fruit drop in mango occurs when the fruits are at pea stage of development.  Moisture deficiency, nutrient deficiency and hormonal imbalance are the causes for the mango fruit drop. Fruit drop can be controlled by spraying 2,4 – D at 10 ppm or Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 20 ppm twice at an interval of 15 days during the early stage (peanut stage) of fruit development.

Products available in the market: 

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Irregular Bearing

Irregular bearing in mango is due to imbalance in nutrient status of the plant. Balanced manuring and fertilizer application and irrigation will keep the tree healthy and vigorous and prevent the irregular bearing. Pruning of weak, dead criss cross shoots to open the canopy of the tree is suggested to regulate the bearing in old trees.

Top Working

Top working is done to replace the inferior seedling mango by know variety.  The trees are beheaded upto 1.5 m height in August to September months i.e., after receding of heavy rainy.  Allow 4-5 vigorous shoots to grow. Grafting on the shoots is done by veneer grafting on the shoots of pencil thickness.  Once the graft is successful, remove the shoots arising from the seedling tree.  Prune the new shoots to get more branches. The young shoots arising from grafts should be protected.

Harvesting and packing

            Early harvest of fully developed but not matured fruit starts in April to catch the early Northern markets. However, the fruits harvested without reaching maturity will not ripen properly. Normal harvest commences when few “Patukayalu” or “Shakh” fall from the tree. In case of pickle mangoes, time of harvest is relatively more flexible and any time between stone hardening and attainment of physiological maturity. Harvesting the fruits with a long poll having a net at the end (Gowka) or Dapoli harvester and lowering them gently on a gunny cushion minimizes the injuries. The minimum total soluble content for harvesting without sacrificing the quality is 9.0 in case of Banganpalli and 8.5 for Dashehari. For judging the maturity, fruit samples from various directions of the tree are taken and dropped in a bucket of water, the dipped fruits being indicative of correct maturity.

The fruits should be harvested with 7 cm stock and taken to the packhouse in plastic crates. Desapping of the fruits should be done by keeping the fruits in inverted position in the desapping nets for about 3-4 hours. Desapping of mango fruits prevent the sap injury on the fruits. After desapping the stock of the fruits are cut up to 1 cm.  The desapped fruits are washed thoroughly in the running water to remove the dirt and other extraneous material. For export, the mango fruits are graded as per the international guidelines of the importing country. The fruits are then packed in the Corrugated fiber board baskets with stock end pointing upward to avoid injury to the fruits.

Products available in the market:

https://www.bighaat.com/products/mango-fruit-picker

 

Post Harvest Technology

            The mango fruits can be stored for 8-10 days at room temperatures. However, under cold storage the fruits can be stored up to 25 days at 12.5 O C and relative humidity of 80-90 %. Mango fruits cannot be stored below 12.5 O C as it causes the chilling injury.

Plant protection

Pests

Mango hopper (Tenemanchu purugu) (Idioscopus clypealis , Idioscopus nitidulus  Amritodus atkinsoni  )   

        

            Damage is caused by sucking sap from tender leaves and inflorescence. Ovipositional punctures also cause damage to tender leaves and inflorescence. Severely infested leaves become curled and inflorescence gets dried. Affected parts are covered with honeydew and sooty mould.

Control

One spray with carbaryl @ 3 gms/litre of water in November before panicle  formation   ensuring  that tree trunks are also thoroughly drenched during the spray. During full length stage of panicle but before full bloom full bloom stage spraying with endosulfan @ 2 ml /litre of water or Dimethoate @ 2 ml /litre of water or imida cloprid @ 0.3 ml/ litre of water if incidence of hoppers is high (more than 5-10 per panicle).After fruit set at pea size stage spraying with imida cloprid @ 0.3 ml/ litre of water or thiamethoxam @ 0.4 gm/ litre of water.

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Mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae, Rastrococcus iceryodies)

            Nymphs and adults suck the plant sap and reduce the vigor of the plant. Excessive and continuous draining of plant sap causes wilting and finally drying of infested tissue. They also secrete honey dew, a sticky substance, which encourages the development of a fungus Maliola mangiferae, resulting in sooty mould. R iceryodies is serious in South India. They are considered more important because if the control measures are not taken timely, the crop may be destroyed completely.

Control

Plough orchard during summer to expose eggs to natural enemies and sun heat. Remove weeds like Clerodendron infortunaturm which are additional hosts.  After mud plastering 25 cm width 400 gauge alkathene sheet may be fastened to the tree trunk 30 cm above the ground level in the month of December- January or use at sticky band on tree trunk to prevent migration of crawlers from soil to trees, one week before their emergence.

Raking the soil around the tree trunk and mixing of chlorpyriphos (1.5% dust) @250 gm per tree. The dust may also be sprinkled below the alkathene band on the tree.

Spray NSKE 4% or crude garlic oil 1% or Dimethoate 0.06 % or Acephate @ 2 gm/lt or Spirotetramat @ 0.3 ml/lit of water

Shoot Borer (Chlumetia transversa)

It causes serious damage to new flush of mango. The affected shoots wilt droop and finally get dried. The infested trees become stunted in growth and the shoot into which this larva is bored dies and does not flower subsequently flowering is inhibited. Young trees up to the age of 8-10 years are more damaged.

Control

Do not retain minor flushes during off season. Apply relatively higher dosage of potash. Prune the infested the shoots and burn. Spray at bud – sprouting stage with Carbaryl 0.1 % followed by Dimethoate 0.04% or Quinalphos 0.5% at 15 days interval from commencement of new flesh.

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Stem Borer (Kaandam tolughu purugu) Batocera rufomaculata

Shoot Borer (Chlumetia transversa)

It causes serious damage to new flush of mango. The affected shoots wilt droop and finally get dried. The infested trees become stunted in growth and the shoot into which this larva is bored dies and does not flower subsequently flowering is inhibited. Young trees up to the age of 8-10 years are more damaged.

Control

Do not retain minor flushes during off season. Apply relatively higher dosage of potash. Prune the infested the shoots and burn. Spray at bud – sprouting stage with Carbaryl 0.1 % followed by Dimethoate 0.04% or Quinalphos 0.5% at 15 days interval from commencement of new flesh.

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 Stem Borer (Kaandam tolughu purugu) Batocera rufomaculata

 

 Damage is caused by the grub of this beetle as it feeds inside the stems, boring upwards and resulting in drying of branches and  in severe cases attacked tree is killed.  Grubs with robust body feeding on inside tissues will be observed when there is severe infestation.

Control

            The grubs can be extracted through hooked wires and then destroyed. Sthe insect can  be controlled by injecting in hole 0.02% dichlorvos ( DDVP)  or  0.05% endosulphan  @ 5 ml/holes or Celphos (aluminium phosphate)  one tablet (3g) per hole and then holes may be sealed with mud .  

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 Damage is caused by the grub of this beetle as it feeds inside the stems, boring upwards and resulting in drying of branches and  in severe cases attacked tree is killed.  Grubs with robust body feeding on inside tissues will be observed when there is severe infestation.

Control

            The grubs can be extracted through hooked wires and then destroyed. Sthe insect can  be controlled by injecting in hole 0.02% dichlorvos ( DDVP)  or  0.05% endosulphan  @ 5 ml/holes or Celphos (aluminium phosphate)  one tablet (3g) per hole and then holes may be sealed with mud .  

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Thrips (Rati Mangu) (Thrips hawaiiensis, Scirtothrips dorsalis)

            Thrips appear during flowering and fruiting stages where their infestation can be recognized during January on flowers and developing fruits causing ‘Mangu’ though initial infestation result in flower drop. Their impact on young fruits are seen in terms of rough surface as well as deshaping of fruits.

Control

            It can be controlled by spraying thiamethoxam @ 0.4 gm / litre of water or acephate 1.5 ml/lt of water or fipronil 2 ml / lt of water.

Leaf Webber (Orthaga euadrusalis)

 

 

           The infestation is severe in shady conditions. Old orchards with lesser space between tree canopies have more infestation than open orchards. The larvae of Orthaga spp web the leaves and the terminal shoots into clusters which harbor several of them in the initial stage. The larvae are gregarious in the beginning and feed by scrapping the leaf surface. Late instar larvae feed on whole leaf lamina leaving only midrib. Severs attack leads to drying of shoots / branches and reduction in fruit yield.

Control

            Supervise the orchard once in a month and search for webbed shoots. Prune the infested shoots and destroy them along with larvae during April – July. After pruning 2 to 3 sprays starting from last week of July at 15 days interval with Carbaryl 0.2% or quinalphos 0.05% have been found effective in controlling the pest.

Shoot gall psylla (Apsylla cistellata)

It is a very serious pest of mango in many parts of India, particularly in Terai region of U.P., North Bihar and West Bengal. This pest creates green conical galls in leaf axis. The activity of the pest starts from August. The galls dry out after emergence of psyllid adults in March. The galls are usually seen during September-October. Consequently, there is no fruit set. There is only one generation of the pest in a year.

Control

        The galls with nymphs inside should be collected and destroyed to prevent carryover of the pest. The pest can effectively be controlled by spraying monocrotophos (0.05%) or dimethoate (0.06%) or quinalphos (0.05 %) at 2 week intervals starting from the middle of August. The use of same chemical for every spray should be avoided.

 Mango fruit borer (Deanolis albizonalis)

 

              In coastal Andhra Pradesh the incidence of mango fruit borer is slowly increasing and assuming   as a serious problem on mango in some areas. The incidence is found right from pea size upto maturity stage. In initial stages upto 6-10 larvae are found in one fruit. fruits in one bunch are prone to attack due to migration of grown up larvae  to neighboring fruits as in case of nut weevil Newly emerged  larvae  bore through the pulp, feed on seed coat and later cause damage to cotyledons.  

Control

  • After mango harvest removal of Dead wood from the tree
  • Removal of diapausing stage of Mango fruit borer from cracks and crevices in the bark and dried twigs
  • Removal and destruction of damaged and MFB infested fruits especially at pea and marble stages of the fruit
  • In Second fort night of   January spray of chloripyriphos 2.5 ml or dichlorovas 1.5 ml or carbaryl 3 gms per litre of water especially in those garden where previous incidence of this recorded. Repeat spray of chloripyriphos 2.5 ml or dichlorovas 1.5 ml or carbaryl 3 gms or Neem oil 3ml + chloripyriphos 1 ml per litre of water at marble stage of the fruit. The sprayings should be preferably carried out during evening hours
  • Spraying of NSKE 5 % at 10 days interval during the months of April and May  upto 15 days before

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 Red mite (Erra nalli) (Oligonychus mangiferous)

These mites both in nymphal and adult stages infest mango leaves. Their presence reflects in terms of scrapped chlorophyll resulting in yellowish tinge on upper side and white webs on underside of leaf.

Control

It can be controlled by spraying wettable sulphur 3gm/ litre of water or diafenthiuron   1 ml /lt of water.

Diseases

Powdery midew ( Budida Rogam) Oidium mangifere

 

             Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases of mango affecting almost all the varieties, Some times, as high as 70-80 per cent crop loss has been recorded on individual plant basis.

The characteristic symptom of the disease is the white superficial powdery fungal growth on leaves, stalks of panicles, flowers and young fruits. The affected flowers and fruits drop pre-maturely reducing the crop load considerably or might even prevent the fruit set. Rains or mists accompanied by cooler nights during flowering are congenial for the disease spread. The fungus parasitizes young tissues of all parts of the inflorescence, leaves and fruits.

Control

Following three sprays of fungicides at 15 days interval recommended for effective control of the disease Wettable sulphur 3-4 g/lit of water or Calixin 1 ml/lit or 1 ml Karathane / lit. water).

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Anthracnose (Macha Rogam) Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes

            The anthracnose disease is of widespread occurrence. The disease causes serious losses to young shoots, flowers and fruits under favourable climatic conditions of high humidity, frequent rains and a temperature of 24-32oC. It is also affects fruits during storage. The disease produces leaf spot; blossom blight, withertip, twig blight and fruit rot symptoms. Tender shoots and foliage are easily affected which ultimately cause die back of young branches. Older twigs may also be infected through wounds which in severe cases may be fatal.

Black spots develop on panicles as well as on fruits. Severe infection destroys the entire inflorescence resulting in no setting of fruits. Young infected fruits develop black spots, shrivel and drop off. Fruits infected at mature stage carry the fungus into storage and cause considerable loss during storage, transit and marketing. The fungus perpetuates on twigs and leaves of mango or other hosts.

Control

Dead twigs should be pruned to reduce inoculum potential Trees may be sprayed twice with Carbendazim @ 1g/lit or Thiophenate methyl 1g/lit at 15 days interval during flowering to control blossom infection. Spraying of copper fungicides (0.3%) is recommended for the control of foliar infection.

Products available in the market: 

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Bacterial canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae)

               The disease causes fruit drop (10-70%), yield loss (10-85%) and storage rot (5-100%). Many commercial cultivars of mango including Langra, Dashehari, Amrapali, Mallika, and Totapuri are susceptible to this disease. The disease is found on leaves, petioles, twigs, branches and fruits, initially producing water-soaked lesions and later turning into typical cankers. The disease first appears as minute water-soaked irregular lesions on any part of leaf or leaf lamina. The lesions are light yellow in colour but with age, enlarge and turn dark brown to black. They become angular, cankerous and raised, and are surrounded by chlorotic halos. Several lesions coalesce to form irregular necrotic cankerous patches. In severe infections the leaves turn yellow and drop off. Cankerous lesions appear on petioles, twigs and young fruits. The water soaked lesions also develop on fruits which later turn dark brown to black. They often burst open, releasing highly contagious gummy ooze containg bacterial cells. The fresh lesions on branches and twigs are water soaked which later become raised and dark brown in colour with longitudinal cracks but without any ooze.
Control

  • Seedling certification, inspection and orchard sanitation.
  • Three sprays of streptocycline (100 ppm) or Agrimycin-100 (100 ppm) after first visual symptom at 10-days intervals.
  • Monthly sprays of Bavistin (1000 ppm) or copper oxychloride (3000 ppm) were also found effective.

Products available in the market: 

https://www.bighaat.com/products/plantomycin-bactericide-aries-agro 

 

Bacterial canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae)

               The disease causes fruit drop (10-70%), yield loss (10-85%) and storage rot (5-100%). Many commercial cultivars of mango including Langra, Dashehari, Amrapali, Mallika, and Totapuri are susceptible to this disease. The disease is found on leaves, petioles, twigs, branches and fruits, initially producing water-soaked lesions and later turning into typical cankers. The disease first appears as minute water-soaked irregular lesions on any part of leaf or leaf lamina. The lesions are light yellow in colour but with age, enlarge and turn dark brown to black. They become angular, cankerous and raised, and are surrounded by chlorotic halos. Several lesions coalesce to form irregular necrotic cankerous patches. In severe infections the leaves turn yellow and drop off. Cankerous lesions appear on petioles, twigs and young fruits. The water soaked lesions also develop on fruits which later turn dark brown to black. They often burst open, releasing highly contagious gummy ooze containg bacterial cells. The fresh lesions on branches and twigs are water soaked which later become raised and dark brown in colour with longitudinal cracks but without any ooze.
Control

  • Seedling certification, inspection and orchard sanitation.
  • Three sprays of streptocycline (100 ppm) or Agrimycin-100 (100 ppm) after first visual symptom at 10-days intervals.
  • Monthly sprays of Bavistin (1000 ppm) or copper oxychloride (3000 ppm) were also found effective.

Products available in the market: 

https://www.bighaat.com/products/plantomycin-bactericide-aries-agro

 

Bacterial canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae)

               The disease causes fruit drop (10-70%), yield loss (10-85%) and storage rot (5-100%). Many commercial cultivars of mango including Langra, Dashehari, Amrapali, Mallika, and Totapuri are susceptible to this disease. The disease is found on leaves, petioles, twigs, branches and fruits, initially producing water-soaked lesions and later turning into typical cankers. The disease first appears as minute water-soaked irregular lesions on any part of leaf or leaf lamina. The lesions are light yellow in colour but with age, enlarge and turn dark brown to black. They become angular, cankerous and raised, and are surrounded by chlorotic halos. Several lesions coalesce to form irregular necrotic cankerous patches. In severe infections the leaves turn yellow and drop off. Cankerous lesions appear on petioles, twigs and young fruits. The water soaked lesions also develop on fruits which later turn dark brown to black. They often burst open, releasing highly contagious gummy ooze containg bacterial cells. The fresh lesions on branches and twigs are water soaked which later become raised and dark brown in colour with longitudinal cracks but without any ooze.
Control

  • Seedling certification, inspection and orchard sanitation.
  • Three sprays of streptocycline (100 ppm) or Agrimycin-100 (100 ppm) after first visual symptom at 10-days intervals.
  • Monthly sprays of Bavistin (1000 ppm) or copper oxychloride (3000 ppm) were also found effective.

Products available in the market: 

https://www.bighaat.com/products/plantomycin-bactericide-aries-agro  

 


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