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Identification and Management of Early Blight disease in Tomato (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)

Posted by Sanjeeva Reddy on

       early blight disease of tomato crop

Tomato is one the most popularly grown vegetable crop in India. The crop is grown in majority of the states and year round. Many diseases, insects or disorder can affect the tomato plants during growing season.

      Tomotoes

Some of the important problems which can cause the economic crop losses are Damping off disease of seedlings, Collar rot, Bacterial canker, Blossom end rot, Early blight, Late blight, fruit rot and several viral diseases like Tomato spotted wilt virus, yellow mosaic, tomato leaf curl virus,  etc.,

      Diseases of tomato

Insects can also attack and cause economic losses to the tomato crop. Leaf miners, fruit borers, red spider mites and recently the American pinworm TUTA ABSOLUTA has become one of the serious insect pest.

In this article we shall discuss the early blight disease identification and management in tomato crop.

       Early blight infection in tomato crop

Alternaria solani is the fungus which cause the early blight disease on tomato. The fungus can also infect the potato crop. Alternaria solani can invade and infect any part of the host plant, leaves, stems and even fruits. The plants with infections yields poor quality. 

       Early blight disease in tomato crops

Symptoms of Early blight disease on Tomatoes

Round leaf spots with dark concentric rings and the diameter of the rings will be usually 1 -1.5 cm. The appearance of the early blight leaf spots is compared with “BULLS EYE”. The leaf spots will start appearing on the older leaves during early stages of infection. Later the infection develops on the stems and fruits as well. The early blight leaf spots join together by expanding the infections and many times defoliation is noticed.

    Early early blight on tomato leaves

Alternaria solani may also infect young seedlings with the lesions on their stems causing collar rot. The lesions appear as sunken and concave lens shaped. The petioles will be attacked in the early blight infected plant, lesions or spots on the petiole and concentric sunken lesions at the junction of petiole and fruit shoulder. Infected fruits may also drop off.

     Damping off in Tomato due to Early blight in tomato

Why Early blight attack tomatoes?

Alternaria solani fungus can invade in favourable conditions like warm, continuous dampy with frequent rain showers, any overhead irrigations if any which favours the fungal invasion and attack.

      Early blight disease in tomato crop

Plants grown under poor nutrition conditions, plants during critical staged like fruiting, flowering stages, if plants are attacked by nematodes are susceptible for early blight infections.

     Poor nutrient supplied tomato crop

Infected seedlings have more chances of acquiring early blight disease. The weeds may also harbor the infection.  Moreover the Alternaria solani fungus can live more than one year in the previous crop debris. If the debris is not properly disposed then, the chances of early blight infections are more in the present crop if tomatoes are planned to grow in the same period.

     Poor weed management in tomato crop  Tomato previous crop debris which can spread early blight disease in tomatoes

Management of early blight disease in Tomatoes

  1. Proper crop planning patterns like effective crop rotation systems.
  2. Planning to grow tolerant varieties in high risk season of early blight disease incidence.
  3. Better spacing and proper staking for the air circulation especially in moist season.
  4. Avoiding the transplanting the diseased seedlings if any.
  5. Providing only sufficient irrigation and avoid unnecessary supply of irrigation water.
  6. Better avoid the intercultural activities during moist days to stop spreading through tools and humans.
  7. Zero weed growth to avoid the invasion of diseases of tomato crop.
  8. Disposal of diseased plants, better to burn them off.
  9. Application of effective fungicides, Biological as well as chemical.               a. Biological fungicides-

      Pseudomonas to control early blight disease in tomato crop       

Sl.No.

Biological Agents

Dosage

Products

1

Bacillus subtilis + Pseudomonas florescence

20 - 25 gm/L of water *

Multiplex Biojodi

2

Pseudomonas florescence

20 - 25 gm/L of water*

ECOMONAS OR BACTIVIPE OR SPOT

3

Trichoderma viride

20 - 25 gm/L of water *

SANJEEVINI OR NISARGA OR TREAT OR ECODERMA

4

Colloidal silver and colloidal copper

2 mL/L

VIDI Green path

 

     Chemical control of Early blight in tomatoes

        b. Chemical Fungicides

Sl.No.

Molecules

Dosage

Products

1

Copper oxy chloride

2-3 gm/L

Blitox, Blue copper

2

Copper Hydroxide

-2 gm/L

Kocide

3

Azoxystrobin+ Tebuconazole

1 mL/L

Custodia

4

Metalaxyl + Chlorothalonil

2 mL/L

Alika

5

Chlorothalonil

2 gm/L

Jatayu , Kavach 2 gm/L

6

Copper EDTA 12 %

0.5 gm/L

Neel Cu  - 0.5 gm/L

And more you can find in the link

 

     Chemical control of Early blight in tomatoes

  • *Biological agents and Chemical fungicides need to be sprayed on the plants in evening hours provided with dry conditions and with spreading agent Nagastha25 mL/L of water.

               *****

K SANJEEVA REDDY,

Senior Agronomist, BigHaat.

For more information kindly call on 8050797979 or give missed call on 180030002434 during office hours 10 AM to 5 PM 

____________________________________________________

Disclaimer: The performance of the product (s) is subject to usage as per manufacturer guidelines. Read enclosed leaflet of the product(s) carefully before use. The use of this product(s)/ information is at the discretion of user.


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8 comments

  • Pls write description in Kannada language

    MADHU on
  • Dear Sir, Clicck the link and scroll down to 19 July 2020 you will find the solution

    Sanjeeva Reddy on
  • Tamoto fruit spots( like bubbles ) are coming in small fruits highly comming which chemical is used to reduce please inform sir

    Manohar on
  • Dear Sir, Kindly leave your number, our team will call you

    Sanjeeva Reddy on
  • Leaves chlorosis so for that I required ferrous sulphate for foliage spray or you suggest

    Ashok Gupta on

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