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Hot pepper / Chilli [CAPSICUM ANNUM] , DISEASES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

Posted by Sanjeeva Reddy on

       Red Chilli

Chilli Capsicum annuum L. is the most widely cultivated species all over the world for its pungent fruits. Chilli is cultivated for both green and red and also called as hot pepper. Chilli crop belongs to solanaceous family and is vulnerable to some of the diseases which are caused by infectious bacteria, fungi and deadly viruses. Important diseases are discussed with their management startegies.

1. Damping off

      Damping off in Chilli crop

Damping off disease is caused by infections and as well as more moisture and less moisture. More moisture also supports fungal and other pathogen. Both pre-emergent and post emergent symptoms are common. Seedlings are killed at nursery and transplanted seedlings will also be killed. Infected tissues at the stem base and root base will be water soaked and soft later turning black killing the young plants.

Drench Metalaxyl (35 %) @ 1 g/litre + Streptomycin Sulphate(Plantomycin) 0.5 gm/L about 100 – 150 ml/plant. After 10 days Trichoderma viride (Ecoderma) 20 gm/L of water drench about 150 mL per plant.

    Damping off in management Chilli crop

2. Leaf spot:

Fungal spots and bacterial spots are commonly found on chilli crop. Bacterial spots are characterized by the yellow ring around the ring but fungal spots are not. Septoria, cercospora leaf spots are more common.

    Leaf spot disease in Chilli

Chemical control of Cercospora and Alternaria leaf spot control

     Chemival for Leaf spot disease control in Chilli

     Chemical to control the fungal leaf spot diseases

Biological control for Fungal and Bacterial leaf spots

      Bacterial Leaf spot disease in Chilli

Biological control of Bacterial Leaf spot disease in Chilli

3. Stem rot

Stem rot is characterized by water soaked light browner coloured patches on any part of the plant branches, they decay and all the leaves drop off with wilting symptoms.

   Stem rot disease Chilli

The control measure for leaf spot diseases can be used to control the stem ro tin Chilli.

4. Anthracnose

Anthracnose disease is more prominent in high moisture with cooler temperatures. The leaves will show the symptoms of black spot and on fruits the spots will be surrounded by the reddening. The disease will also show symptoms after at post-harvest stage.

 Anthracnose disease in chilli crop

Chemical management of Anthracnose on chilli crop

anthracnose disease in chilli crop by chemicals

 chemical treatment of anthracnose disease in chilli crop

5. Powdery mildew

Yellow blotches on upper surface of the leaves with Powdery-white fungal growth on the undersides of leaves are observed. The infected leaves curl upward. Usually the older leaves are infected first later move on to younger leaves. Infected leaves drop from the plant prematurely and many times the fruits are exposed to sunlight making the fruits sunscald.

 Powdery mildew disease in Chilli crop

Management of Powdery mildew

Control of Powdery mildew disease in Chilli crop

6. Viral infections

Viral infections in chilli crops is another major diseases which cause much crop losses. Some of viral infection symptoms are mosaic, yellow mosaic, mosaic mottle, leaf curl, leaf roll, bushy stunt and leaf necrosis.

 Chilli viral infections

These viral infections’ symptoms are combinedly called as muruda. White flies transmit the virus from plant to plant.

6.1 Leaf curl virus or Gemini virus

Leaves are malformed and curled inwards to the side of mid rib with stunted plant growth. Flower parts under develop without forming to fruits.

 Gemini virus or Leaf curl virus of chilli

6.2 Mosaic Viruses:

Irregular light green and dark patches with mosaic appearances are observed on the leaves with smaller size. Stunted growth with yellow chlorotic ring spots on the under developed fruits.

 Tobacco Mosaic Virus in Chilli

6.3 Tomato Spotted wilt virus

Recently the Tomato Spotted Wilt virus [TOSPOW] is common viral infection in tomato and the disease has also shown symptoms in chilli and capsicum. The leaves turn yellow, elongates and cluster apical growth is observed with little or no fruit set. The crop grown in high temperature season, with high use of ammoniacal nitrogen as nitrogen nutrient sources.

 Tospow Viral infections in Chilli

 

Management of Viral Infections

Viral diseases are spread from plant to plant at young growing stages before the age of 25 days and this particular stage is most vulnerable stage for spreading and carrying the viral infections which may express at later stages.

 Sucking pests in nursery

So, raise the saplings under controlled conditions where the germinated saplings or seedlings will be protected from sucking pest vectors like whiteflies, thrips, aphids and other plant hoppers providing minimal chances of viral infections at later stages.

 Protected structure for seedlings raising

In the main field the management of the viral infections the vector management is foremost. In addition to the management of sucking pests like whiteflies, aphids and thrips the supplement of plant stimulants may help plants develop some kind of inhibition towards virus attack and also bind the active viruses in the plant sap, so that the multiplication and further damage may be reduced.

 Shade net structures for nursery

Following combinations may be sprayed to manage both sucking pests [Vectors] as well as bind or develop resistance of plants against viral infections in the plants.  7 days intervals is required in between the sprays.

 

First combination

 

V-Bind 3 mL/L + Magnum Mn 0.5 gm/L /  L + Splash 2 gm/L + Pegasus 2 gm/L

Viral Disease management in Chilli crop

Second Combination

Perfect 1 mL/L + Sambrama 1 tablet / 15 Liter of water + Ridomil gold 2 gm/L + Ekka 0.5 gm/L + Econeem plus 1 %- 1 mL/L 

Viral Disease management in Chilli crop

Third combination

Odis 2mL/L + Viral out 2 gm/L+ Magnum Mn 0.5 gm/l + Phytozyme 1 mL/L

 

Viral Disease management in Chili crops

Important Note

1. Use of more and more nitrogen to the chilli crop leads to the susceptibility o chilli plants to the viral infections especially ammoniacal nitrogen present in the fertilisers and other inputs which are supplemented to the crops will increase the viral infections. Amides formed in the plant sap from ammoniacal nitrogen sources will help the virus to multiply at higher rates increasing the symptoms.

2. Avoid Poultry manure, because poultry manure contains large quantities of ammoniacal nitrogen which Poultry manure need to be decomposed for minimum 6 months and be mixed 50: 50 red soil and poultry manure respectively before application.

3. Urea and Ammonium Sulphate contains ammoniacal nitrogen, better to limit of avoid using these fertilisers

4. Amino acids supplements through sprays and soil drenchings may be avoided to suppress the viral multiplications in the plant system.

5. Supplementation of Manganese micronutrients through foliar sprays and soil application will help in managing the viral infections not only in chilli but also in vegetable crops.

 

K SANJEEVA REDDY,

Senior Agronomist, BigHaat.

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For more information kindly call on 8050797979 or give missed call on 180030002434 during office hours 10 AM to 5 PM

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Disclaimer: The performance of the product (s) is subject to usage as per manufacturer guidelines. Read enclosed leaflet of the product(s) carefully before use. The use of this product(s)/ information is at the discretion of user.


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5 comments

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    OTrwcVzh on
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    GEHLdcnMfBDwPSeC on
  • vegetable and horticulture disease control by dr.sanjeeva reddy sent pdf file

    Prakash Mane on
  • Plz provide fertilizer schedule for drip irigation

    Vishnu Vardhan Reddy on
  • Which chemical in perpect.

    Sanjay Diggewadi on

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