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Good Agriculture Practices of Watermelon

Posted by BigHaat India on

Good Agriculture Practices of Watermelon crop

Watermelon is an important cucurbitaceous vegetable/Fruit in India. It is an excellent desert fruit and its juice contains 92% water along with proteins, minerals and carbohydrates. Watermelons are mainly cultivated in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh.

Soil and Climate:

A well-drained soil of loamy type is preferred for Watermelon. The soil should not crack in summer and should not be waterlogged in the rainy season. It is important that soil should be fertile and rich in organic matter. The most suitable pH range is between 6.0 and 7.0.

Watermelon is warm season crop and do not withstand even light frost and strong winds. Seed does not germinate below 11oC, optimum germination occurs at 18oC and germination increases with rise in temperature till 30oC. Watermelon grow best at a temperature range of 18-24oC. Melons prefer tropical climate with high temperature during fruit development with day temperature of 35-40oC. Cool nights and warm days give better quality fruits in melons.

Varieties

Aishwarya Watermelon , Anmol Yellow Watermelon, Apoorva Watermelon , Arun Watermelon, Dragon King Water Melon , Jaguar Watermelon F1 and etc

Find the varieties on below link:

https://www.bighaat.com/collections/fruits/fruit-seeds+product_water-melon  

Agronomic practices

Sowing Times:

  • Melons are grown only when the weather is warm and dry during fruit development, all through year can be planned with above growing conditions.
  • For rainy season, grow only those Watermelons which can tolerate rains.
  • In southern and central India, can be grown throughout the year.

Methods of planting:

Mostly in Watermelon, in situ method of sowing is followed.

  1. Furrow method:

Furrows are made at 1 to 1.5 m and sowing is usually done on the top of the sides of furrows and the vines are allowed to trail on the ground especially in summer season.

  1. Bed method:

 In some regions, bed system is in fashion where the seeds are sown on the periphery of beds. The width of the bed is almost double to the row to row spacing.

  1. Hill method or raised beds or raised point:

The hills are spaced at a distance of 0.5- 0.75m and 2-3 seeds are sown per hill, after germination only one or two plants per hill are retained. This method facilitates proper drainage especially in heavy rainfall regions.

  1. Pit Method:

Generally, it is followed in southern India. The pit is lower than the normal bed surface.

Seed treatment, Nursery management and Transplanting:

Watermelon crop is usually propagated through seeds but since seeds are big nursery raising may not be required. Seed treatment with some protective agents may still help better germination, good survivability and also better yields. For chemical treatment seeds can be soaked in Ridomet 0.5 gm/L + Plantomycin 0.5 gm/L + Humic Acid[ V-Hume] 5 mL/L [mixture before sowing].

 

https://www.bighaat.com/products/gibrax-sp186-growth-regulator + https://www.bighaat.com/products/plantomycin-bactericide-aries-agro + https://www.bighaat.com/products/v-hume-plant-nutrient 

 

This mixture can be used to treat roots of saplings before transplanting. Since saplings or early germinated plants are more vulnerable to pests and diseases, the nursery growing of saplings have become must. The saplings can be procured from nurseries where quality saplings or seedlings are raised.

Seedlings are grown before, 15 -20 days old saplings are transplanted in the main field after sowing. However healthy quality seedlings can be procured from scientifically maintained nurseries.

 

Manures and fertilizers:

Prepare the main field by ploughing and harrowing and add 8 to 10 tonnes per acre Farmyard manure or compost is applied at the time of field preparation. Apply well rotten farm yard manure / compost @ 8 -10 t/acre, 200 -250 kg Bio organic Manure + 10 kg Humic acids granules [Ecohume Gr] https://www.bighaat.com/products/ecohume-gr-bioactive-humic-substances-1-5-granules

 

Recommended dose of Fertilizer Application: NPK – 50:40:40 kg/ per acre following combinations may be used.

Major Nutrients

Combination 1

kg

Urea (46 % N)

74.7

DAP (18 % N; 46 % P2O5)

87.0

MOP (60 % K2O)

66.7

 

Combination 2

kg

10:26:26'

153.8

Urea (46 % N)

75.3

 

Combination 3

kg

20:20:00'

200.0

Urea (46 % N)

21.7

MOP (60 % K2O)

66.7

 

Secondary Nutrients [ Soil Conditioners] 50 kg/acre[ products containing Calcium, Magnesium and Sulphur nutrients]

Micronutrients [Micronutrient Mixtures] 5- 10 kg per acre Aries multi micronutrient fertilizer

https://www.bighaat.com/products/aries-agromin-micro-nutrient-fertilizer

Full dose of farmyard manure, phosphorus and half of potassium and N should be applied at the time of sowing. Remaining part of N should be top dressed in two equal parts after one month and at flowering stage while remaining half of K is applied when good growth takes place. Fertigation of nutrients can also be provided to supplement the required nutrients. Fertigation schedule is provided at the end.

Stage IV Irrigaton:

Irrigation: In spring-summer crop, frequency of irrigation is very important, while in rainy season crop, well distributed rainfall between July to September reduces the frequency of irrigations. Ridges or hills or beds are to be irrigated a day or two prior to sowing of seeds and then light irrigation is to be given 4 or 5 days after sowing. Flooding of hills is to be avoided and crust formation of the top soil should be prevented. Irrigation once in 5 or 6 days is necessary depending upon soil, location, temperature etc. Irrigation water should not wet the vines or vegetative parts, especially when flowering, fruit set and fruit developments are in progress. Wetting will promote diseases and rotting of fruits, so it is essential to keep beds or inter row spaces dry as far as possible so that developing fruits are not damaged.

Stage V Plant protection:  Foliar application (Sprays)

1st  Spray3 weeks after sowing

Carbendazim [Bengard] 2 g/L OR Metalaxyl + Mancozeb [Ridomil gold] – 2 g/litre + Acephate (Hunk- 1 gm/L) + V-Zyme 2 mL/L + Econeem plus 1%-  1 mL/L

https://www.bighaat.com/products/bengard-fungicide OR https://www.bighaat.com/products/ridomill-gold-fungicide + https://www.bighaat.com/search?type=product&q=*Hunk* +

https://www.bighaat.com/products/econeem-plus-azadirachtin-10000-ppm-biopesticide

2nd  Spray5 weeks after sowing

Copper Oxy Chloride [Cuprina or Blitox]  2 g/litre + Chloropyriphos [Predator]  2 ml/litre + Multimax [Micronutrient mixture] – 3 gm/L + Wetting agent [Raccold Spraywell] 1 mL/litre.

https://www.bighaat.com/products/cuprina-fungicide + https://www.bighaat.com/products/predator-insecticide + https://www.bighaat.com/products/multimax-nutrient + https://www.bighaat.com/products/dow-spraywell-surfactant-adjuvant

3rd Spray – 7 weeks after sowing

Zineb 68% + Hexaconazol 4% WP [Avtar]  2 g/litre – 2 g/ L + Econeem plus 1%-  1 mL/L +Triazhophos [Trifos] 2 mL/L + Seaweed extract[ Biovita] 2 mL/L

https://www.bighaat.com/products/indofil-avtar-fungicide + https://www.bighaat.com/products/econeem-plus-azadirachtin-10000-ppm-biopesticide + https://www.bighaat.com/products/biovita-bio-fertilizer

4th Spray – 9 weeks after sowing

Imidachloprid [Confidor] 0.5 mL/L + Econeem plus 1%-  1 mL/L +  Ahaar 2 mL/l+ Carbendazim + Mancozeb [Saaf] 2 gm/L

https://www.bighaat.com/products/confidor + https://www.bighaat.com/products/econeem-plus-azadirachtin-10000-ppm-biopesticide + https://www.bighaat.com/products/ahaar-plant-nutrient + https://www.bighaat.com/products/upl-saaf-fungicide

 

5th Spray – 11th  week after sowing

Thiomethaxom [Anant or Maxima] 0.5 g/litre + Chlorothalonil [Kavach] 2 gm/L + Micronutrient mixture [Nutribulid Mix] -1g/L + Econeem plus 1%-  1 mL/L

https://www.bighaat.com/products/anant-insecticide + https://www.bighaat.com/products/kavach-fungicide + https://www.bighaat.com/products/dow-nutribuild-mix-edta-12-chelate-250-gms  https://www.bighaat.com/products/econeem-plus-azadirachtin-10000-ppm-biopesticide

Stage VI Weed management:

Apply paraquat dichloride [PARALAC or GRAMOXONE] 6 gm/L or Glyphosate [Round up] 12-15 mL / L. and spray on post growth of weeds at 2 weeks before sowing of Watermelon. Hand weeding is the best to manage weeds in grown up crop no selective herbicides are available.

https://www.bighaat.com/products/gramoxone-herbicide or https://www.bighaat.com/products/roundup-herbicide

Thinning of plants should be done 10-15 days after sowing retaining not more than 2 healthy seedlings per hill. The beds or ridges are required to be kept weed free in the early stages before vine growth start. Weeding and earthing up are done at the time of top dressing of split application of nitrogenous fertilizers.

Fertigation schedule for Watermelon per acre

Sl No.

DAY after Sowing or Transplanting

Water Soluble Fertilisers per acre of plot

1

05-10 days

12 :61 :00  3.0 kg + V-Hume 2 L

2

12-17 days

12 :61 :00  3.0 kg + Nutribuild  250 grams

3

19-24 days

00:52:34  4.0 kg + Boron 20 250 gms

4

26-32 days

13 :00 :45 4.0 kg + Gibrax Phytozyme 2 Litre

5

33-39 days

00:52:34  4.0 kg +  Magnesium Sulphate 5 kg

6

40-46 days

13 :00 :45 4.0 kg

7

47-53 days

Calcium Nitrate  6.0 kg

8

54-60days

Sulphur Liquid 2 L

9

61-67 days

00:52:34 -  4.0 kg + Boron 20 250 gms

10

68-74 days

Calcium Nitrate  6.0 kg + Chelamin gold 350 gm

11

75-80 days

13 :00 :45  8 kg + Gibrax Phytozyme 2 Liter

12

82-87 days

00 : 00: 50 – 4kgs + Ammonium Sulphate 3 kg

 

K SANJEEVA REDDY,

Senior Agronomist, BigHaat

Disclaimer: The performance of the product(s) is subject to usage as per manufacturer guidelines. Read enclosed leaflet of the product(s) carefully before use. The use of this product(s) /information is at the discretion of user.


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