Good Agricultural practices of Onion Crop

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Good Agricultural practices of Onion Crop

Onion is an important commercial crop grown in India. It is used both as vegetable and spice in different crop stages.

Soil and climatic requirements:

Well-drained sandy loam soil is best suited. The optimum pH range would be 6.0 – 7.5. Water logging and alkaline soils adversely affect the growth & development of plant & bulb.  Onion is a cool season crop. It is grown during winter and harvested before the real hot season begins. But it grows well in mild season without extremes of heat and cold.

Varieties: At the following link the seed varieties can be viewed. Few of them are Nasik Red, Prerana,XP Red onion, Gulmohar, Prema Onion, Marshal onion ,..etc.

Onion Seeds

Planting time: May - June – July;   August - September – October, and  January - February.

Seed rate: Seedling transplanting: 2 - 2.5 kg/acre; Direct sowing: 8 – 10 kg/acre;                  Broadcasting: 20 – 25 kg/acre

Spacing for seedling transplanting: 15 cm x 7.5 cm ;  For direct seeds sowing: 30 cm x 30 cm

Land preparation:

Plough the land to get fine tilth by 2 – 3 ploughings.

Nursery preparation: Prepare nursery beds of size 7.5 m length, l.2 m width and 10cm height. Add 3 - 4 basketful of FYM/compost, 200g PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS (Spot) and Bio activator mixtures (Ecohume Gr granules) per bed. +


Mix all the above products well & incorporate into the soil. Sow the seeds in the rows of 7.5 cm apart. Irrigate the beds immediately. Again after 10 days add 0.5 kg/bed 15:15:15 (N:P:K). Seedlings will be ready for transplanting within 6- 8 weeks after sowing. Then transplant the seedling at 15 cm x 7.5 cm spacing.

Direct seeds sowing: After thorough land preparation directly sow the seeds in a row of 30 cm apart and 30 cm between plants.

Broadcasting: Broadcast the seeds after land preparation and Basal applications. Thinning may be required at highly populated dense growth of the onion saplings.

Fertilizer application

6 to 8 ton of FYM applied at the time of soil preparation per acre along with 50 kg N, 30 kg P2O5 & 40 kg Potash /acre should be applied along with 50 kg secondary micro nutrient (Samruddhi)+ 5-10 kg Zinc high Aries Multi Micronutrient fertiliser + 15 kg Calcium nitrate.


Recommended dose of Fertilizer Application: NPK – 50:30:40 kg/ per acre per crop

Major Nutrients:

Combination 1


Urea (46 % N)


DAP (18 % N; 46 % P2O5)


MOP (60 % K2O)



Combination 2




Urea (46 % N)


MOP (60 % K2O)



Combination 3




Urea (46 % N)


MOP (60 % K2O)


  • Above – mentioned quantity is for 2 split application

Irrigation: Irrigation can be given at 4-5 days interval depending on the weather and soil characteristics.

Crop Protection 

Weed Management: Pre-emergent herbicide Lasso 500 mL/acre or Goal 100 mL/ acre can be sprayed on first irrigation. Hand weedings are to be done for better weed control. OR


Pest and Disease Management:

Soil application: To avoid damping off the seeds can be treated with Metalaxyl [Ridomet 25 gm/ kg of seeds and 100 mL Humesol /Kg of seeds + Thiomethaxim[Anant] 5 gm per of seeds + +

 Seed Treatment

Foliar Pests: Thrips, Eriophyid Mites, Red Spider Mites and Diseases Blotch, Stemphylium leaf blight, Anthracnose/Twister Disease, Fusarium or Basal Plate Rot, Pink Root, Damping Off, White Rot or Sclerotial rot, Black Mould, Iris Yellow Spot Virus, Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus.


Common Sprays to manage Pests and diseases of Onion crop

1st Spray - 20 to 25 days after sowing/transplanting

Acetamipride 20 % SP (Prime or  Manik or Pyramid 0.5 gm/L 0.5 g/litre or + Carbendazim (Benguard or Bavistin) 2 g/litre + Ahaar – 2 ml/litre + Econeem plus 1 % - 1 mL/L + + +

1 st Spray

2nd Spray - 40 to 45days after sowing/transplanting

Acephate (Hunk or Asataf ) 2 g/litre or + BioVita @ 2.5 ml/litre + Carbendazim + Mancozeb combi (Saaf) 2 g/L + Econeem plus 1 % - 1 mL/L + +

2 nd Spray

3rd Spray- 55 to 60 days after sowing/transplanting

Phytoalexin @ 3 ml/litre + Kavach 1.5 gm/L  or Kitazin 2 mL/l + Nutribuild Mix EDTA@ 1 g/litre Econeem plus 1 % - 1 mL/L + + +

3 rd Spray

4th spray – 70 to 75 days after sowing/transplanting

Metalaxyl + Mancozeb combi (Ridomil gold or Master) 2 g/L + Phytozyme 2 mL/l + Chelamin max (Zn EDTA 12 %) 0.5 g/litre + Profenofos + Cypermethrin (Roket) 2 ml/litre + Econeem plus 1 % - 1 mL/L   +   +

4 th Spray

Harvesting: Harvest the crop when the leaves turn to yellow and tip or half of the leaves bent. Sun dry the tubers atleast for one week after harvest.



Senior Agronomist, BigHaat.


Disclaimer: The performance of the product(s) is subject to usage as per manufacturer guidelines. Read enclosed leaflet of the product(s) carefully before use. The use of this product(s) /information is at the discretion of user.

1 comment

  • Basangouda p

    Sir you mentioned urea for onion if we use that we can’t store onion for long term bulb will get spoil soon… Recommend good fertilizer for onions

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