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GROWING & NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR CHILLI/HOT PEPPER [CAPSICUM ANNUUM]

Posted by Sanjeeva Reddy on

  Chilli Fruits

Chilli is one of the most valuable crops of India. It is grown almost throughout the country. These fruits are small in size and known for their sharp acidic flavour and colour. Currently, chillies are used throughout the world as a spice and also in the making of beverages and medicines.

     Hot Pepper or Red chilli

If some varieties of chillies are famous for red colour because of the pigment ‘capsanthin,’ others are known for biting pungency attributed to ‘capsian.’

Soil and Climate:

The chilli is a plant of tropical and sub -tropical region, it grows well in warm and humid climate and a temperature of 200C to 250C. As a rain fed crop, it is grown in areas receiving an annual rainfall of 25-30 inches.

    Weather requirements for Chilli

Chilli can be grown in all type of soils, but the sandy - loam, clay loam and loamy soils with pH of 5.5 to 7 are best suited for chilli. The soil must be well drained and well aerated. Acidic soils are not suitable for chilli cultivation.

   Soils for Chillio cultivation

Varieties of Chilli:  Several seed producers are supplying many high yielding green and red chilly varieties. There are varieties supplied which yield significantly and varieties resistant to many diseases. 

    Chilli varieties

Nursery Management

    Nursery raising of chilli crop  

Prepare 15 raised seed bed (6 per acre with 22.5 feet long x 3.5 feet breadth and  4 inches height).  Apply 30 kg (3 – 4 baskets) well decomposed FYM to each bed along with ½ kg 15: 15: 15 compound fertilizer and mix them well in the soil.

  • Sow the seeds in 3 inches rows or broadcast thinly on the beds.
  • Cover the beds with FYM or soil.
  • Provide shade during summer till germination.
  • Water beds regularly in the evening. Gradually reduce the supply of the water during the last 10 days before transplanting to harden the seedlings.
  • Seeds will germinate in a week and will be ready for transplanting in about 6 weeks.

      traditional Nursery raisings of chilli seedlings

Sowing Time and Seed Rate:

In case of chilli crop, for kharif it sown in May - June and for summer crop, it is sown in the month of January.   60 to 80 g seed is required for one acre area. Spacing may be maintained 75 cm x 60 cm OR   75 cm x 45 cm OR 90cm x 45 cm.

       Spacing for the Chilli cultivation

 

Land Preparation and planting:

    Land preparation for Chilli    Farm yard manure for Chilli 

Prepare the main field by ploughing and harrowing and 8 to 10 tones /acre of FYM or compost is applied at the time of field preparation. The biofertilisers [AATOBACTER + NITROBACTOR + PHOSPHATE SOLUBILISING BACTERIA + POTASSIUM MOBILISING BACTERIA] need to be added to the Farm Yard Manure, which are beneficial in overall soil and plant relationships like water and nutrient exchange, suppression of root infectious insects and diseases.

      Biofertiliser for Chilli

FYM may also be mixed with some of the biopesticides TRICHODERMA VIRIDE, PSEUODOMONAS FLOURESCENS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, to kill pathogenic fungus, bacteria, Saferoot [TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM with PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS] for root nematodes and entomopathogenic nematodes Soldier [HETERORHABDITIS INDICA] to kill soil borne insects.

  Bacillus for Chilli soil FYM     Chilli Pseuodomonas      Saferoot for Chilli     Multiplex soldier for Chilli

Sow the seedlings at recommended rate per acre. Root white grubs & termites pests can be controlled by application of 5 kg Caldan (Cartap hydrochloride 4 % Gr). When seedlings attain the age of one month or height of 10 -15 cm, then those seedlings are transplanted.

   Soil Insecticide for CHilli

 

Nutrients Applications

Basal Soil application: Apply to the soil the items provided in the table before transplantation.

Compost

Farm yard manure

8 to 10 tonnes

NPK      Ratio

N- 35kg : P- 45 kg : K 20 kg 

DAP

100 KG

UREA

30 KG

MOP

40 KG

Bio Organic Manure

NEEM + PONGAM CAKE

300 KG

Root Growth Promoter

Growth promoter GRANULES

10 KG

Micronutrients

Micronutrient Mixture

10 KG

Secondary Nutrients

MgSO4

50 KG

Soil Insect controller

CALDAN

5 KG

 

Second Dose at 30- 35 days after transplanting

NPK      Ratio

N- 35kg : P- 25 kg : K 35 kg 

10:26:26

100 KG

Urea + Mahaphal 1 L

50 KG

 

Third Dose 65 – 70 days after transplanting

NPK      Ratio

N- 20 kg : P- 20 kg : K 20 kg 

20:20:00:13

100 KG

MOP

40 KG

Root Growth Promoter

Growth promoter GRANULES

5 KG

Micronutrients

Micronutrient Mixture

5 KG

Secondary Nutrients

MgSO4

25 KG

Secondary Nutrients

Calcium Nitrate

25 KG

 

Fourth Dose 95 – 100 days after transplanting [May be for Red Chilli]

NPK      Ratio

N- 20 kg : P- 20 kg : K 20 kg 

20:20:00:13

100 KG

MOP

40 KG

Micronutrients

Borax

5 KG

 

Fifth Dose 115 – 120 days after transplanting [May be for Red Chilli]

NPK      Ratio

N- 5 kg : P- 00 kg : K 25 kg 

Calcium Nitrate

25 KG

SOP

50 KG

Micronutrients

Borax

5 KG

 

Next Blog ..."Chilli fertigation schedule "            

    ****

For more information kindly call on 8050797979 or give missed call on 180030002434 during office hours 10 AM to 5 PM

K SANJEEVA REDDY,

Senior Agronomist, BigHaat.

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Disclaimer: The performance of the product (s) is subject to usage as per manufacturer guidelines. Read enclosed leaflet of the product(s) carefully before use. The use of this product(s)/ information is at the discretion of user.

 

 

 

 

 

 


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