Bitter gourd crop its life cycle is invaded by different diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. Starting from bitter gourd seeds put into soil the diseases may invade bitter gourd crop.
1. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloesporioides
The symptoms first appear on the foliage as small, yellowish water-soaked areas which later turn dark and dry.
Dithane M -45 [Mancozeb ] 2 gm/ L or Sanipeb [Propineb] 2 gm/L OR Bengard [Carbendazim] 2 gm/ L OR Ridomil gold 80 WP [Metalaxyl + Mancozeb] OR Avtar [Zineb 68% + Hexaconazol 4% WP] 2 g/litre OR Blitox [Copper Oxy Chloride] 2 g/litre or Kocide [Copper hydroxide] – 2 g/litre
2. Damping-off caused by Oomycete (Pythium spp.)
Affected seedlings fail to emerge or collapse shortly after emergence. Water soaked lesions also appear on the seedlings at the soil level.
3. Downy mildew Caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis
The underside of leaves develop a downy white to gray mold, which may turn grey to purple during wet weather. Spores develop to mold.
and after a week
4. Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii
Powdery mildew is a serious and common fungal disease during warm and humid conditions with overcast days.
For control Powdery mildew
5. Angular leaf spot on bitter gourd
Bacteria leaf spot or Angular leaf spot is a bacterial disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae.
For control angular leaf spot on bitter gourd
Several biological agents can be used to control the fungal and bacterial diseases like
Viral diseases are among the major limiting production factors for cucumber production in tropical areas. Typical symptoms include green and yellow mottling and wrinkling of the leaves, mottling and wartiness of the fruit, and general dwarfing of the plant.
Bitter gourd Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV) is a Whitefly transmitted gemini virus is common viral nfection.
Symptoms include yellow leaves with mosaic and a distorted appearance. The whole plant is stunted. Affected fruit is also misshapen.
Management of Viral diseases
- Thoroughly screen the nursery bed for the infected seedlings and rogue them carefully and transplant only healthy seedlings and remove the diseased plants in the main field.
- Spray with insecticides to check the sucking pests such as White flies, Aphids and Thrips which are transmitters of the viral disease.
- Weeds should be removed which may act as an additional host.
Spray should be concentrated more on apical parts of the plants since vectors only thrive at apical parts of the plant.
Ammoniacal nitrogen has also positive advantage for viral infections so take care of quantity of ammoniacal nitrogen application.
Following sprays may be done to manage
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