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Good Agricultural Practices for Egg plant- SOLANUM MELONGENA. L [Brinjal]

Posted by Sanjeeva Reddy on

                      Brinjal Egg plant      Egg fruit brinjal

Brinjal or eggplant [Solanum melongena L] is an important solanaceous crop of sub tropics and tropics. The name brinjal is popular in Indian subcontinents and is derived from Arabic and Sanskrit whereas the name eggplant has been derived from the shape of the fruit of some varieties, which are white and resemble in shape to chicken eggs.

Varieties:

Many seed producers are supplying many brinjal varieties both non hybrid and hybrid. Brinjal crop is usually propagated through seeds but since seeds are very minute, seedlings or saplings raised under controlled conditions or nursery. 22-25 days old saplings are transplanted in the main field after sowing.

Dhruva, Jeeva, Indigo, Mukhtha Moti, Mahy 11 etc

    Seed varieties

Climate and Soils:

An average monthly temperature of 210C to 230C and well drained, organic matter rich soils with pH 6.0 to 7.5 are best suitable for brinjal.

            Brinjal flowers

Transplanting:

The transplanting is done in small flat beds or in shallow furrow depending upon the availability of irrigation. Spacing recommended will be 3 feet x 2 feet, 4 feet x 2.5 feet 5 ft x 2.5 feet based on hybrids and hybrid types.

                       Transplanting

For indeterminate varieties/hybrids, the seedlings have to be staked using supporting sticks. Roots of saplings procured from nurseries can be treated/ dipped with water dissolved with Krilaxyl power 0.75 gm/L before sowing to avoid transplanting shock.

Manure and fertilisers

         Manures and fertilisers

Recommended dose of Fertilizer Application:

Major Nutrients NPK – 70: 60: 70 kg/acre for regular varieties and for hybrid varieties 100:75: 100 kg of NPK per acre.

 Fertilisrsa and manures for brinjal

Irrigation

Brinjal crop need very careful irrigation that is just sufficient water at the right time. A period of drought followed by sudden heavy watering during the fruiting period may cause cracking of fruits.

          irrigation to brinjal

Recent advances brinjal fields are irrigated with Drip technology

          Drip irrigation

Plant Protection - Insects

1. White flies

   Whiteflies in Brinjal

Insecticides for white fly control

Diafenthiuron [Pegasus or AGAS] 1.5 gm /L OR Acetamiprid [EKKA or Pyramid] Buprofezin 15% + Acephate 35% WP [Odis ] 2 gm/L 

       Whiteflies control in Brinjal

2. Leaf miners

       Leaf miners in Brinjal

Insecticides to manage the leaf miners

Benevia 2 mL/L during 18-20 days of age of the seedlings and at 20 -22 days after transplanting OR Abacin 1 mL/L +Econeem 1 % - 1 mL/L

        Leaf miners control in Brinjal

3. Sucking pests [ Thrips, Aphids , Green leaf hoppers, Jassids]

   Sucking pests in Brinjal

Insecticides to manage Sucking pests [Thrips, Aphids , Green leaf hoppers, Jassids]

Beta-Cyfluthrin + Imidacloprid [ Solomon ] OR Ethiprole + Imidacloprid [ Glamore] OR Imidacloprid 30 % [Confidor Super] 0.3 mL/L OR Imidacloprid 70 % [Admire] OR Acephate (Asataf ) 2 g/litre OR Spinosad 480 SC (Tracer or Spintor) 0.375 mL/L

     Control of sucking pests in Brinjal crop

4. Leaf Feeder, flower feeder, Shoot and fruit borer

    Shoot, fruit borer in Brinjal

Insecticides to manage Leaf Feeder, flower feeder and fruit borer

Carbosulfan [Marshall] 2 mL/L OR Quinolphos [Ekalux] – 2 mL/L OR Flubendamide [Fame or Fluton] 0.2 mL/L OR Chlorantraniliprole [Coragen] or 0.33 mL/L OR Cyantraniliprole [Benevia] OR Novaluron 5.25% + Indoxacarb [Plethora] 1 mL/L OR + Econeem 1 % - 1 mL/L

     Management of Shoot borer in Brinjal

5. Red Spider mites

   Red spider mites

Insecticides to manage Red Spider mites

Fenazaquin [Magister] 2 ml/litre OR Fenpyroximate [ Pyromite or Sedna OR  Ethion [Nagata] 2 ml/litre

When mites are more at earlier stages and no initiation of flower spray Sulphur 2 gm/L OR Multiplex Liquid Sulphur 2 ml/litre to control.

      Management of spider mites  

6. RootKnot Nematodes

         Root Knot nematode damage in Brinjal

Consortium of Paecilomyces lilacinus [Fungus]–  and Trichoderma harzianum [Fungus] like [Multiplex Safe Root] 5 kg/acre along with Bio organic manure applications.

                  Root knot nematode biological control

Chemical Control: Cartap Hydrochloride [CALDAN 4G] 5  kg before transplanting will kill. Drenching with Carbosulfan [Marshall] 3 L OR Ekalux 3 L per acre will control nematodes as well as root grubs, chafers and termites.

          Root Knot nematode chemical control

7. Soil pests like root grubs, chaffers and termites.

       Chaffers and root grub infestation in Brinjal crop

Entomopathogenic nematodes [EPN] Multiple Soldier @ 5 kg/acre along with enriched organic manure.

                   Biological control of brinjal chaffers and root grubs infestation

Several biological agents can be used to effectively control insects like leaf feeders, Aphids, thrips and loopers

  • By spraying Biological agents like BEAUVERIA BASSIANA [Multiplex BABA OR METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE [Multiplex Metarhizium OR VERTICILLIUM LECANI [Multiplex Varsha] 15-20 gm/L + Neem oil 10000 ppm [Econeem plus] @ 1 ml /litre of water, two or times. 10 gm per litre of water.

              Biological insect control in Brinjal

  • During fruit stage fruit flies can be monitored by setting up Fruit fly traps with para-pheromone lures. Pheromone traps can also be set to control.

              Brinjal fruit and shoot borer traps with lures

  • BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS [Bt] [Delfin] can be used to kill many lepidopteran insects.

              Biologiacal control of leaf eating caterpillars  

Plant protection - Diseases

1. Fungal leaf spot, Fruit rot, Stem rot and Anthracnose

           Leaf spots on Brinjal leaves

Metalaxyl + Mancozeb [Ridomil gold 80 WP or Master or Krilaxyl 72] – 2 g/litre OR Zineb 68% + Hexaconazole 4% WP [Avtar  2 g/litre OR Copper EDTA [Neel Cu] 0.5 g/litre OR Copper Oxy Chloride [Blue Copper or Blitox]  2 g/litre or Copper hydroxide [Kocide] – 2 g/litre

          Management of Leaf spots

  2. Powdery mildew

                 Powdery mildew in Brinjal

Fungicides to manage powdery mildew

Fluopyram 17.7%+ Tebuconazole17.7%  [Luna Expereince] 1 mL/L OR Nativo [Tebuconazole + Trifloxystrobin] 0.5 gm/L OR Propiconazole+ Difenoconazole [Taspa] 1 mL/L OR Azoxystrobin + Tebuconazole [Custodia ] 0.5 mL/L OR Difenconazole[ Score] 0.5 mL/L OR Tebuconazole  [Follicur] 2 mL/L

             Management of powdery mildews in Brinjal

3. Pomosis  

               Pomosis in Brinjal.

Fungicides to manage pomosis

Fluopicolide + Fosetyl-Al [Profiler] OR Iprovalicarb 5.5% + Propineb [Melody Duo] OR Fenamidone + Mancozeb [Sectin] OR Metalaxyl + Mancozeb [Ridomil gold 80 WP or Master or Krilaxyl 72] – 2 g/litre 

       Pomosis Management in Brinjal

4. Wilt Disease

Wilting of brinjal plants might be due to multiple reasons.

           Wilts in Brinjal

  1. Excess moisture at root zone and water logging for longer periods
  2. Fungal and Bacterial infections in roots like rots and wilts
  3. Pest attacks by like root grubs and other root eating worms

4.1 Bacterial Wilts

                   Baterial wilt in Brinjal.

Bactericides to manage Bacterial wilts

Copper EDTA [Neel Cu] 0.5 g/litre OR Copper Oxy Chloride [Blue Copper or Blitox]  2 g/litre or Copper hydroxide [Kocide] – 2 g/litre + Bactinash 0.4 g/litre or Kasugamycin[Kasu-B] 2 mL/L.

          Antibiotics for the bacterila wilt treatment

4.2 Fungal Wilts

            Fungal wilts in brinjals

Fungicides for wilt treatment

Krilaxyl power 1 gm/L or Ridomet 1 gm/L or Neel Cu 0.75 gm/L

            Fungicides for the fungal wilt disease management

Wilts can be manged with biological hyper parasitic organisms also.

Consortium of Bacillus subtilis [Bacteria] and PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS [Multiplex Bio Jodi] 10 gm/L for spray and 20 gm per litres for drenching to control wilts.

                       Multiplex Biojodi for management of wilt diseases in Brinjal crop

TRICHODERMA VIRIDE [Nisarga or Ecoderma or Treat] OR PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS [Ecomonas or Spot].

                    Biological control of Bacterial and fungal wilts

Wilt management in brinjal also requires

  • During water logged conditions providing proper drainage to the plants will drain excess water providing plants to grow healthy.
  • In case of wilt, fungicides treatment may help or may not help in single treatment. Pythium wilt is one of the important and deadly disease which cause brinjal crop wilting. Integrated treatments are required to manage the pythium wilt disease.
  • Following combinations drenching to the roots may manage both diseases and insects attack and also provide the growth promoters for new root growth.

Note:

Nutrient management is provided as indicative based on the requirement of the crops. The actual requirement of nutrients may depend on the Variety type, soil type where the crop is cultivating. So as the fertigation also.

For more information kindly call on 8050797979 or give missed call on 180030002434 during office hours 10 AM to 5 PM

--------------------------------*****************************-------------------------------

K SANJEEVA REDDY,

Senior Agronomist, BigHaat.                                                                                                             

Disclaimer: The performance of the product (s) is subject to usage as per manufacturer guidelines. Read enclosed leaflet of the product(s) carefully before use. The use of this product(s)/ information is at the discretion of user.


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2 comments

  • Dear Sir, Thank you for the comments. Regularly visit the blog page for the latest updates. Request you to share about the blog page with farmer friends and ask them to visit and make use of the blog information.

    Sanjeeva Reddy on
  • Super sir very good information

    Shyam on

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