Brinjal or eggplant [Solanum melongena L] is an important solanaceous crop of sub tropics and tropics. The name brinjal is popular in Indian subcontinents and is derived from Arabic and Sanskrit whereas the name eggplant has been derived from the shape of the fruit of some varieties, which are white and resemble in shape to chicken eggs.
Many seed producers are supplying many brinjal varieties both non hybrid and hybrid. Brinjal crop is usually propagated through seeds but since seeds are very minute, seedlings or saplings raised under controlled conditions or nursery. 22-25 days old saplings are transplanted in the main field after sowing.
Climate and Soils:
An average monthly temperature of 210C to 230C and well drained, organic matter rich soils with pH 6.0 to 7.5 are best suitable for brinjal.
The transplanting is done in small flat beds or in shallow furrow depending upon the availability of irrigation. Spacing recommended will be 3 feet x 2 feet, 4 feet x 2.5 feet 5 ft x 2.5 feet based on hybrids and hybrid types.
For indeterminate varieties/hybrids, the seedlings have to be staked using supporting sticks. Roots of saplings procured from nurseries can be treated/ dipped with water dissolved with Krilaxyl power 0.75 gm/L before sowing to avoid transplanting shock.
Manure and fertilisers
Recommended dose of Fertilizer Application:
Major Nutrients NPK – 70: 60: 70 kg/acre for regular varieties and for hybrid varieties 100:75: 100 kg of NPK per acre.
Brinjal crop need very careful irrigation that is just sufficient water at the right time. A period of drought followed by sudden heavy watering during the fruiting period may cause cracking of fruits.
Recent advances brinjal fields are irrigated with Drip technology
Plant Protection - Insects
1. White flies
Diafenthiuron [Pegasus or AGAS] 1.5 gm /L OR Acetamiprid [EKKA or Pyramid] Buprofezin 15% + Acephate 35% WP [Odis ] 2 gm/L
2. Leaf miners
Benevia 2 mL/L during 18-20 days of age of the seedlings and at 20 -22 days after transplanting OR Abacin 1 mL/L +Econeem 1 % - 1 mL/L
3. Sucking pests [ Thrips, Aphids , Green leaf hoppers, Jassids]
Beta-Cyfluthrin + Imidacloprid [ Solomon ] OR Ethiprole + Imidacloprid [ Glamore] OR Imidacloprid 30 % [Confidor Super] 0.3 mL/L OR Imidacloprid 70 % [Admire] OR Acephate (Asataf ) 2 g/litre OR Spinosad 480 SC (Tracer or Spintor) 0.375 mL/L
4. Leaf Feeder, flower feeder, Shoot and fruit borer
Carbosulfan [Marshall] 2 mL/L OR Quinolphos [Ekalux] – 2 mL/L OR Flubendamide [Fame or Fluton] 0.2 mL/L OR Chlorantraniliprole [Coragen] or 0.33 mL/L OR Cyantraniliprole [Benevia] OR Novaluron 5.25% + Indoxacarb [Plethora] 1 mL/L OR + Econeem 1 % - 1 mL/L
5. Red Spider mites
Fenazaquin [Magister] 2 ml/litre OR Fenpyroximate [ Pyromite or Sedna OR Ethion [Nagata] 2 ml/litre
When mites are more at earlier stages and no initiation of flower spray Sulphur 2 gm/L OR Multiplex Liquid Sulphur 2 ml/litre to control.
6. RootKnot Nematodes
Consortium of Paecilomyces lilacinus [Fungus]– and Trichoderma harzianum [Fungus] like [Multiplex Safe Root] 5 kg/acre along with Bio organic manure applications.
Chemical Control: Cartap Hydrochloride [CALDAN 4G] 5 kg before transplanting will kill. Drenching with Carbosulfan [Marshall] 3 L OR Ekalux 3 L per acre will control nematodes as well as root grubs, chafers and termites.
7. Soil pests like root grubs, chaffers and termites.
Entomopathogenic nematodes [EPN] Multiple Soldier @ 5 kg/acre along with enriched organic manure.
Several biological agents can be used to effectively control insects like leaf feeders, Aphids, thrips and loopers
- By spraying Biological agents like BEAUVERIA BASSIANA [Multiplex BABA OR METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE [Multiplex Metarhizium OR VERTICILLIUM LECANI [Multiplex Varsha] 15-20 gm/L + Neem oil 10000 ppm [Econeem plus] @ 1 ml /litre of water, two or times. 10 gm per litre of water.
- During fruit stage fruit flies can be monitored by setting up Fruit fly traps with para-pheromone lures. Pheromone traps can also be set to control.
- BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS [Bt] [Delfin] can be used to kill many lepidopteran insects.
Plant protection - Diseases
1. Fungal leaf spot, Fruit rot, Stem rot and Anthracnose
Metalaxyl + Mancozeb [Ridomil gold 80 WP or Master or Krilaxyl 72] – 2 g/litre OR Zineb 68% + Hexaconazole 4% WP [Avtar 2 g/litre OR Copper EDTA [Neel Cu] 0.5 g/litre OR Copper Oxy Chloride [Blue Copper or Blitox] 2 g/litre or Copper hydroxide [Kocide] – 2 g/litre
2. Powdery mildew
Fluopyram 17.7%+ Tebuconazole17.7% [Luna Expereince] 1 mL/L OR Nativo [Tebuconazole + Trifloxystrobin] 0.5 gm/L OR Propiconazole+ Difenoconazole [Taspa] 1 mL/L OR Azoxystrobin + Tebuconazole [Custodia ] 0.5 mL/L OR Difenconazole[ Score] 0.5 mL/L OR Tebuconazole [Follicur] 2 mL/L
Fluopicolide + Fosetyl-Al [Profiler] OR Iprovalicarb 5.5% + Propineb [Melody Duo] OR Fenamidone + Mancozeb [Sectin] OR Metalaxyl + Mancozeb [Ridomil gold 80 WP or Master or Krilaxyl 72] – 2 g/litre
4. Wilt Disease
Wilting of brinjal plants might be due to multiple reasons.
- Excess moisture at root zone and water logging for longer periods
- Fungal and Bacterial infections in roots like rots and wilts
- Pest attacks by like root grubs and other root eating worms
4.1 Bacterial Wilts
Copper EDTA [Neel Cu] 0.5 g/litre OR Copper Oxy Chloride [Blue Copper or Blitox] 2 g/litre or Copper hydroxide [Kocide] – 2 g/litre + Bactinash 0.4 g/litre or Kasugamycin[Kasu-B] 2 mL/L.
4.2 Fungal Wilts
Krilaxyl power 1 gm/L or Ridomet 1 gm/L or Neel Cu 0.75 gm/L
Wilts can be manged with biological hyper parasitic organisms also.
Consortium of Bacillus subtilis [Bacteria] and PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS [Multiplex Bio Jodi] 10 gm/L for spray and 20 gm per litres for drenching to control wilts.
Wilt management in brinjal also requires
- During water logged conditions providing proper drainage to the plants will drain excess water providing plants to grow healthy.
- In case of wilt, fungicides treatment may help or may not help in single treatment. Pythium wilt is one of the important and deadly disease which cause brinjal crop wilting. Integrated treatments are required to manage the pythium wilt disease.
- Following combinations drenching to the roots may manage both diseases and insects attack and also provide the growth promoters for new root growth.
Nutrient management is provided as indicative based on the requirement of the crops. The actual requirement of nutrients may depend on the Variety type, soil type where the crop is cultivating. So as the fertigation also.
For more information kindly call on 8050797979 or give missed call on 180030002434 during office hours 10 AM to 5 PM
K SANJEEVA REDDY,
Senior Agronomist, BigHaat.
Disclaimer: The performance of the product (s) is subject to usage as per manufacturer guidelines. Read enclosed leaflet of the product(s) carefully before use. The use of this product(s)/ information is at the discretion of user.
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