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Good Agricultural practices for TOMATO crop

Posted by BigHaat India on

Tomato (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM) belongs to the genus LYCOPERSICON under SOLANACEAE family. Tomato is an herbaceous sprawling plant growing to 1-3 m in height with weak woody stem.

                                Tomato Leaves

The flowers are yellow in colour and the fruits of cultivated varieties vary in size from cherry tomatoes, about 1–2 cm in size to beefsteak tomatoes, about 10 cm or more in diameter. Most cultivars produce red fruits when ripe.

                                 Tomato Fruits

Climatic Requirement:  The tomato is a warm-season crop. The crop does well under an average monthly temperature of 210C to 230C. Temperature and light intensity affect the fruit-set, pigmentation and nutritive value of the fruit. Long dry spell and heavy rainfall both shows detrimental effect on growth and fruiting.

                                    Tomato crop in optimum Climate

Soils: The tomato grows on practically all soils from light sandy to heavy clay. Light soils are good for an early crop, while clay loam and silt-loam soils are well suited for heavy yields. Tomatoes do best in a soil that has a soil reaction from pH 6.0 to 7.0.

Spacing: The spacing recommended for the autumn-winter crop is 3.5 ft. x 1.5 ft. and for the spring-summer crop 4 ft. x 2 ft.

                                  Spacing for Tomato crop

SEED

VARIETIES :

                            Seed varieties of Tomato on Bighaat web

Sl. No.

Company

1

NAMDHARI- SWARAKSHA+

2

Syngenta Abhinav

3

Syngenta Avishkar

4

Seminis abhigyaan,

5

Indo American Seeds INDAM RUCHI

6

Seed Works SW1506

7

Indo American Seeds INDAM 9802

8

Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Company Ltd.

MHTM 256 (Suparna)

9

Semillas Fito India Pvt.Lt Ruby Red

10

Bayer US 618

 

                             Seed varieties of Tomato on Bighaat platform

Seed treatment/ Root dipping of saplings

Tomato crop is usually propagated through seeds but since seeds are very minute, seedlings or saplings raised under controlled conditions or nursery. Since saplings or early germinated plants are more vulnerable to pests and diseases the nursery growing of saplings have become must. The saplings can be procured from nurseries where quality saplings or seedlings are raised.

                                 Damping off Disease in Tomato crop

Roots of saplings procured from nurseries can be treated/ dipped with chemicals like Ridomet [Metalaxyl 35 %] 0.75 gm/L+ Plantomycin [Tetracycline + Streptomycin Sulphate] 0.5 gm/L + Humic Acid 5 mL [V-Hume] mixture before sowing.

   Seedling root treatment to control damping off in Tomato crop

Nursery Management

Seeds are pre sown in coco peat like nursery manure in controlled conditions called sapling nurseries. Saplings are raised in nurseries to protect them from adverse climatic conditions, pests, diseases and avoid spread of deadly viral diseases. Uniform growth is also ensured when saplings or seedlings are raised in controlled conditions. Healthy sturdy saplings can be produced in nurseries.

                                    Seed varieties of Tomato on Bighaat website

Transplanting:

The transplanting is done in small flat beds or in shallow furrow depending upon the availability of irrigation. In heavy soil it is usually transplanted on ridges and during the rains also it is advantageous to plant the seedlings on ridges. For indeterminate varieties/hybrids, the seedlings have to be staked using supporting sticks.

Before transplanting during land preparation soil application

Farm yard manure / compost @ 12-15  ton/acre, 450-480kg Annapurna, 10 kg Multiplex Srushti, 10 -15 kg of Ecohume Granules 10-15 kg and 5 kg CALDAN granules to control White Grubs. DAP 100 kg + MOP 50 kg and Magnesium Sulphate 50 kg as basal dose.

                Annapurna Bio organic Manure for tomato crop available on Bighaat web     Micro-nutrients for tomato crop available on Bighaat web   Root growth promoters for tomato crop available on Bighaat website  Soil pesticide for tomato crop available on Bighaat platform

25-30 days after transplantation 10:26:26 100 kg + 15 kg Calcium Nitrate treated with Multiplex General liquid 1 L

60 – 70 days after transplanting 14:34:14 or 12:32:16 + 25 kg MOP

100- 105 days after transplanting 20:20:00:13 100 kg + 50 kg MOP

 Fertilizer Application:

Major Nutrients NPK – 100:100:100 kg/acre is recommended and by both soil application and through fertigation these nutrients to be supplemented.

Irrigaton:

Tomatoes need very careful irrigation that is just sufficient water at the right time. It is necessary to maintain an even moisture supply. Moisture stress causes abnormal physiological disorders. A period of drought followed by sudden heavy watering during the fruiting period may cause cracking of fruits.

Plant protection:  

Weed management:

                            Weeds in tomato crop

Metribuzin [Tata Metri] 100 gm per acre post emergent weedicide can be used in standing crop but manual weedings will reduce weed growth.

                             Selective herbicide for tomato crop available on Bighaat.com

For control of white flies

                              White flies infestation in tomato crop

Prime gold [Acetamiprid] 0.5 gm/L OR Odis [Buprofezin 15% + Acephate 35% WP] 2 gm/L

                              Spray for control of white flies on tomato crop available on bighaat

For control Leaf miners

                               Leaf miners infestations in Tomato crop

Trifos [Triazhophos] 2 mL/L or Benevia [Cyantraniliprole] 1 mL/L

                              Spray for control of leaf miners on tomato crop available on bighaat

For control Sucking pests [ Thrips, Aphids , Green leaf hoppers, Jassids]

                      Sucking pests infestations on Tomato crop

Confidor Super [Imidachloprid 30.5 %] 0.3 mL/L OR Hunk [Acephate]) 2 g/litre OR Tracer [Spinosad 480 SC] 0.375 mL/L

    Spray for control of sucking pests on tomato crop available on bighaat

For control of leaf, flower feeder and fruit borer

                    Caterpillars on tomato crops

Coragen [Chlorantraniliprole] or 0.33 mL/L OR Plethora [Novaluron 5.25% + Indoxacarb] 1 mL/L or Emagold 0.5 gm/L + Econeem plus 1 % 1 mL/L

 Spray for control of caterpillars on tomato crop available on bighaat

For control of Red Spider mites

           Spider mites in Tomato crop

Maiden [Hexythiazox] 1.5 mL/L OR Magister [Fenazaquin] 2 ml/litre OR   Colonel [Dicofol] + Multiplex Kranti 2 mL/L

 Spray for control of red spider mites on tomato crop available on bighaat

For control of Nematodes in infested standing crops

                 Nematodes infestation in Tomato crops

  1. Drenching for individual plants 100 to 150 mL of following mixtures at 15 days interval

     Drenching  for control of nematodes on tomato crop available on bighaat

  1. Through drip irrigation in 500 L of following mixtures at 15 days interval

 Drenching for control of nematodes on tomato crops available on bighaat web

Apply neem cake @ 450 to 500 kg/acre and 5 – 10 k g CALDAN granules per acre during basal application.

                          Soil Application for control of nematodes on tomato crops available on bighaat

For control fungal leaf spot, stem rot and Anthracnose

              Leaf spot, Anthracnose disease infection on tomato crop

Dithane M -45 [Mancozeb ] 2 gm/ L or  Sanipeb [Propineb] 2 gm/L OR  Bengard [Carbendazim] 2 gm/ L  OR Ridomil gold 80 WP [Metalaxyl + Mancozeb] OR Avtar [Zineb 68% + Hexaconazol 4% WP] 2 g/litre OR Blitox [Copper Oxy Chloride] 2 g/litre or Kocide [Copper hydroxide] – 2 g/litre

  Spray to control fungal leaf spot, stem rot and Anthracnose diseases in tomato crop available on Bighaat

 

For control Powdery mildew

                  Powdery mildew disease in Tomato  crop

Nativo [Tebuconazole+Trifloxystrobin] 0.5 gm/L OR Vespa [Propiconazole+ Difenoconazole1 mL/L OR Custodia [Azoxystrobin + Tebuconazole] 1 mL/L OR Contaf plus [Hexaconazole] 2 mL/L

 Spray to control powdery mildew disease in tomato crop available on Bighaat

For control early and late blight in winter months.

Early blight infection in tomato crop     Late blight infection in tomato crop

Borogold 2 gm/L + Dithane M – 45 [ Mancozeb] 2 gm/l OR Ridomil gold 80 WP or Master [Metalaxyl + Mancozeb] – 2 g/litre OR Lurit [Dimethomorph] 1 g/litre OR Phytoalexin 4 mL/l [Phosphorous liquid] + Blitox [Copper Oxy Chloride] 2 g/litre or Kocide [Copper hydroxide] 2 g/litre.

 Spray to control early and late blight disease in tomato crop available on Bighaat

For control bacterial leaf spot

                                            Bacterila leaf spot disease on tomato crop

Borogold or Kavach [Chlorothalonil] 2 gm/L OR Kocide [Copper hydroxide] – 2 g/litre + Plantomycin 0.5 gm/L.

 Spray to control bacterial leaf spot in tomato crop available on Bighaat

Several biological agents can be used to control the fungal and bacterial diseases like

  •  Ecoderma or Nisarga [TRICHODERMA VIRIDE] and Ecomonas PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS 10 to 15 gm/L for spray and 20-25 gm per litres for drenching to control wilts.

          Biological agents for disease control in Tomato crops available in Bighaat  and  Biological agents for disease control in Tomato crop available in Bighaat

 

Important Disease and Disorder

Following sprays may be administered to manage viral infections like tospow virus, yellow mosaic, leaf curl and other viral infections

                  Viral infections in tomato crop

First spray: Odis 2mL/L + Viral out 2 gm/L+ Magnum Mn 0.5 gm/l + Phytozyme 1 mL/L+ Econeem plus 1 %- 1 mL/L

 Sprays for Tospow virus disease control

after 10 days:

Prime gold 0.5 gm/L + V-Bind 2 mL/L + Multimax 3 gm/L + Econeem plus 1 % 1 mL/L

 

 Spray for Tospow virus disease control

Blossom End rot Disease a disorder caused by Calcium nutrient deficiency

The Blossom End rot Disease is a physiological problem occurs in highly succulent fruits of vegetable and fruit crops.

                      Blossom End rot  disease in tomato crop

Controlling Measures

Blossom end rot can be managed by maintaining adequate supplies of moisture and calcium to the developing fruits. Soil applications as basal dose, Fertigation at developing stages and more frequent foliar applications with calcium containing products may control the Blossom End Rot disease.

 Soil application with Soil grade Calcium Nitrate.

10 kg as basal application and 15 kg per acre at the 40 days after transplanting

5 kg Fertigation at 35 days after transplanting and after that every 20 days once

 Spray with Foliar grade Calcium Nitrate 3- 4 gm/L every 20 days after transplanting

                                    Blossom End rot  disease control control products available on bighaat

 

K SANJEEVA REDDY,

Senior Agronomist, BigHaat.

 Disclaimer: The performance of the product (s) is subject to usage as per manufacturer guidelines. Read enclosed leaflet of the product(s) carefully before use. The use of this product(s)/ information is at the discretion of user.


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8 comments

  • 9340902134 flower drop ki samsaya ke upaya kya hai sir tamatar me danthal pila ho ke gir raha hai

    Komal Verma on
  • Sir namskar sir maine tamatar ke 2 acre me kheti ki hai cg se kawrdha se hu tamatar me flower drop ki samsaya se paresan hu Fhal set nahi ho rha hai us 1501 versity tometo hai kripya mere samsya ka samdhan kijiye sir dreep irrigation systems bhi laga hai fertilizer sedul bhi batayega kab kon se khad dena hai timing ke hisab se

    Komal Verma on
  • sir, could I get contact number of you?

    Sandeep reddy on
  • Dear Sir, Thank you for the comments, Keep watching the blog for latest updates. You can ask your farmers friends to make use of this platform. Thank You

    Sanjeeva Reddy on
  • tq sir i got good information any app for for gathering information

    VIJAY on

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