Mango Flower: Mango [MAGNIFERA INDICA] is the king of fruits and unfortunately, it is seasonal so the flowering of mango trees is season-dependent. The process of flowering is a vital physiological activity in mango trees and it is dependent on several factors. The flowering of mango trees happens in cooler temperatures with bright sunshine.
Mango trees are alternate bearers and they may be tree-wise in an orchard or branch-wise within the trees.
Mango trees of less than 10 years may flower and fruit every year.
In India, mango trees flower in the transition period of fog and light and maybe from December to March based on the TOPOGRAPHY, REGION, SOIL, and GROWING CONDITIONS.
About Mango Flower
The mango tree is monoecious that produces both male and female reproductive parts in the same or single tree. Mango trees initiate a lot of flowers and all the flowers won’t develop into fruits. Flowers in the mango trees will not initiate at a single time and initiate at different times at different branches and may be due to the light penetration and other factors. 75 % of mango flowers initiated can develop into fruits by self-pollinating.
The induction of flowers from the shoot in the mango tree is dependent on the weather conditions at that time of initiation. It is proved that cytokinins in the plant system are responsible for flower induction. These cytokinins are a kind of florigenic promoters and react with vegetative promoters and decide or conclude what to initiate whether reproductive [flower] parts or vegetative [Leaf or twigs] parts.
Supplementing the plants or trees with some of the synthetic florigenic promoters may help mango trees to initiate or induce the flowers.
In many crops, the pruning of the tips of the shoots may start to initiate flowers many times.
Scientists have proven reports that there is a special role of some nutrients in flower inducing, flower initiation, and also in maintaining the male to female ratio. There are reports that nitrogen nutrient helps in increasing the number of female flowers which actually will form fruits. Potassium nutrient is said to have a distinct role in physiological reactions, it can prompt the development of reproductive growth.
Paclobutrazol is one such kind of plant growth regulator which may be applied to mango tree roots 3 months prior to flowering or bearing time.
Pests and Diseases Of Mango Flower
After the initiation of flowers and inflorescence is set, it takes 100 – 150 days for pollinated flowers to form into fruits among the varieties. During this period the mango inflorescence is vulnerable to powdery mildew and sucking pests due to its sweet content. Since flowering is in cooler climates, the powdery mildew disease is most common, anthracnose is another disease that affects mango flowers and fruit leaves.
Normally farmers plan sprays to manage these pests and diseases in the fruit development stage starting from the flower initiation.
Following sprays may be administered for the mango flowers to manage the powdery mildew, some of the sucking pests. Fruit fly traps with lures may be tied to control the fruit fly infestation.
Second spray: During Flowering
Third spray: During Flowering/ Fruit setting
Final spray if required: Fruit setting
Mango fruits vary according to geographies, soil type, and topography. Mango fruit skin color ranges from greenish-yellow to orange-red with acidic to sweet flavor.
K SANJEEVA REDDY,
LEAD Agronomist, BigHaat.
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