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Diseases of Cotton (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM) and Management Strategies

Posted by Sanjeeva Reddy on

  Cotton

Cotton crop(Gossypium hirsutum) is vulnerable to infections by pathogens like fungi, bacteria and viruses. All the parts of the plants are infected and crop lossess are common.

1. Root rot (Seedling to vegetative stage): The root rot of cotton is caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola and Rhizoctonia solani fungi present in the soil supported by higher moisture in the soil.

  Cotton root rot    Cotton root rot later stage

Seed treatment with bio- agents Trichoderma viride 10 gm/kg + Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g/ kg seed or Thiram 75% WS 3g/kg seed or Soil drenching with Trichoderma viride @ 5 kg/acre mixed with 200 kg moist FYM. Spot drenching with Metalaxyl 35 % [Krilaxlyl Power] 1 g/L water at the base of affected plants as well as surrounding healthy plants.

 Treatment for the root rot in cotton       Chemical treatment to treat cotton root rot

2. Fusarium wilt (Any stage of crop growth): Fusarium wilt is common disease of cotton crop caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and capable of causing significant crop loss. The fungus is free living and may persist in soil as chlamydospores and in association with the roots of cotton as well as on the roots of weeds. Fusarium wilt spores may also live on the seeds of cotton.

  Fusarium Wilt in cotton crop

3. Verticillium Wilt

Verticillium wilt of cotton disease is caused by Verticillium dahlia fungus. Reduced leaf size with mottling with yellow areas between veins and on margins; Brown necrotic leaves become dry and finally shed off.

  Verticillium wilt in cotton

4. Para wilt or Sudden drying (New wilt): The sudden drying of cotton plants is noticed farmers’ fields after drought followed by rains or irrigation.

 Sudden wilt in Cotton crop

Management of wilts

Seed treatment with bio- agents Trichoderma viride 10 gm/kg + Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g/ kg seed or Thiram 75% WS 3g/kg seed or Soil drenching with Trichoderma viride @ 5 kg/acre mixed with 200 kg moist FYM. Spot drenching with Metalaxyl 35 % [Krilaxlyl Power] 1 g/L water or Carbendazim 2 gm/L of water at the base of affected plants as well as surrounding healthy plants

 Treatment for the root rot in cotton    Systemiv fungicides for the wilts

5. Alterneria leaf blight/Spot (Vegetative and flowering stage): Alternaria macrospora is the fungi which causes the disease. Brown irregular or round spots on leaves, and more spots merge to form larger spots. Sever infections leaves brittle and fall off.

  Alternaria leaf spot disease of Cotton

6. Grey Mildew: This disease is also called as Areolate mildew caused by Ramularia areola fungus. Translucent lesions on lower surface of the leaves with grey powdery mildew growth on the leaves and veins. Light green specks with white powdery mildew growth on upper side of the leaves.

 Grey mildew in cotton

7. Anthracnose: Anthracnose disease is one of the fungal disease which may affect all the plant parts of the cotton plant. At seedling stage, the circular red colored spots are noticed and seedlings may even die. Sunken, circular, reddish to brown colored spots on bolls and leaves are noticed at later stages of infection.

 Anthracnose in cotton

Management or Alternaria leaf blight, Grey mildew and Anthracnose.

Sl.No.

Product and dose

Molecules

1

Blitox, Blue copper 2-3 gm/L

Copper oxy chloride

2

Kocide 2 gm/L

Copper Hydroxide

3

Custodia – 1 mL/L

Azoxystrobin+ Tebuconazole

4

Foliogold – 2 mL/L

Metalaxyl + Chlorothalonil

5

Amistar top

Azoxystrobin + Difenoconazole

6

Cabrio top

Metiram + Pyraclostrobin

 

 Treatment for anthracnose,grey mildew and leaf spot diseases of cotton crop

Bacterial blight: Xanthomonas campestris

At seedlings stage the cotyledons will have water soaked, circular or irregular lesions and finally the seedlings die causing the seedling blight.Small, dark green water soaked angular spots under the surface of the leaves, growing larger and larger and will be visible at both the surfaces.

 Alternaria leaf spot disease of Cotton

The bacteria also infect the veins causing the vein necrosis or vein blight.

Black arm symptoms are noticed when bacteria infects on branches and stem. Premature drooping off of the leaves is common symptoms.

Severe infections of bacteria may also infect the bolls and cause boll rot.

 Boll rot due to bacterial blight disease in cotton crop

Management of bacterial blight in cotton crop

Sl.No.

Product and dose

Molecules

1

Blitox, Blue copper 2-3 gm/L

Copper oxy chloride

2

Kocide -2 gm/L

Copper Hydroxide

3

Bactinash - 0.4 gm/L

2 BROMO 2 NITRO-PROPANE- 1,3 DIOL

4

Plantomycin -0.5 gm/L

Streptomycin sulphate=9% +Tetracycline Hydrochlorine=1%

5

Jatayu , Kavach 2 gm/L

Chlorothalonil

6

Neel Cu  - 0.5 gm/L

Copper EDTA 12 %

 

 Treatment to bacterial blight in cotton crop

Viral Infections

Leaf Curl

 Viral Infections on cotton

Leaf curl disease of cotton crop is caused by “gemini virus” and which is transmitted by Whiteflies [Bemacia tabaci]. The first symptom appears on the younger leaves turning thick and forming cup shaped. Plant growth and development will be obviously stunted and boll number and size is less.

Tobacco Streak Virus

 Viral Infections on cotton and spread through whiteflies

Ring like irregular purplish necrotic spots of leaves. The plants are stunt and leaf will be decreased.

 Management of Viral infections

Proper nutrient management practices, addition of lot of organic matter in to the soil to maintain required organic carbon and increase the microbial activity. Management of whiteflies to prevent spread of the disease.

V-Bind 3 mL/ L ; Ezee cotton 1 mL/L; Perfekt 1 mL/L; Viral out 1 gm/L Any one at one time spray may be administered to manage the viral diseases along with Magnum Mn 0.5 gm/l. However the insecticides which controls the whitefly population is must to avoid the spread. The above

 Biostimulants to manage the viral infections in cotton  with   Manganese for cotton viruses

Most importantly the nutrient management with all essential elements may provide the strength to cotton plants to resist against the delay viral infections.

Ahaar 2 mL/L; Multiplex Kranti 2 mL/

  Balanced nutrition for cotton          

The supplement of plant growth stimulants like Gibberellins, cytokinins, amino acids and other growth regulators will also provide the disease resistance in addition to the increase in the yields.

Gibrax SP 186 1 gm/L; Multiplex Falcon 1.5mL/L; Imuen Plant booster 2-3 mL/L; Chamak 3 gm/L

 Biostimulants to manage the viral infections in cotton

 

K SANJEEVA REDDY,

Senior Agronomist, BigHaat.

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For more information kindly call on 8050797979 or give missed call on 180030002434 during office hours 10 AM to 5 PM

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Disclaimer: The performance of the product (s) is subject to usage as per manufacturer guidelines. Read enclosed leaflet of the product(s) carefully before use. The use of this product(s)/ information is at the discretion of user.

 


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