Biofertilizers in Agriculture – Types, Examples, Benefits, Recommendation and Methods and Precautions of Application
What are Biofertilizers?
A biofertilizer is a substance which contains living micro-organisms which, when applied to seeds, plant surfaces, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of nitrogen fixation, solubilizing phosphorus, and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth-promoting substances.
The micro-organisms in biofertilizers restore the soil's natural nutrient cycle and build soil organic matter. Through the use of biofertilizers, healthy plants can be grown, while enhancing the sustainability and the health of the soil. Biofertilizers can be expected to reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, but they are not yet able to replace their use. Since they play several roles, a preferred scientific term for such beneficial bacteria is "plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria" (PGPR).
Types and Examples of Biofertilizers:
Benefits of Biofertilizers in the soil
- Increases crop yield by 20-30%.
- Can replace chemical nitrogen and phosphorus by 25%.
- Stimulates plant growth.
- Activates the soil biologically.
- Restores natural soil fertility.
- Provides protection against drought and some soil borne diseases.
Methods of Biofertilizers Application:
- Seed Treatment: 200 g of biofertilizer is suspended in 300- 400 mL of water and mixed gently with 10 kg of seeds using an adhesive like gum acacia, jiggery solution, etc. The seeds are then spread on a clean sheet/cloth under shade to dry and used immediately for sowing. Seedling
- Root Dip: This method is used for transplanted crops. For rice crop, a bed is made in the field and filled with water. Recommended biofertilizers are mixed in this water and the roots of seedlings are dipped for 8-10 h and transplanted.
- Soil Treatment: 4 kg each of the recommended biofertilizers is mixed in 200 kg of compost and kept overnight. This mixture is incorporated in the soil at the time of sowing or planting.
Precautions to be taken while using Biofertilizers:
- Should be stored in cool and dry place away from direct sunlight and heat.
- Right combinations of biofertilizers have to be used.
- As Rhizobium is crop specific, one should use for the specified crop only.
- Other chemicals should not be mixed with the biofertilizers.
- The packet has to be used before its expiry, only for the specified crop and by the recommended method of application.
- Biofertilizers are live product and require care in the storage
- Both nitrogenous and phosphatic biofertilizers are to be used to get the best results.
- It is important to use biofertilizers along with chemical fertilizers and organic manures.
- Biofertilizers are not replacement of fertilizers but can supplement plant nutrient requirements.
Biofertilisers on BigHaat.
- Azotofix: Mix Azotofix at the proportion of 2-3ml per liter of water/ seed treatment/ drip irrigation/FYM. Individual Plants:2ml / 2 gm / liter of water & apply directly into the soil.
- Soil Bijopachar ( Azotobacter):
As Seed Treatment: Mix Dr.Soil Bijopachar with required quantity of seeds & Dry in a Shady Place (avoid drying at sun light) and do sowing.
Root Dipping: Mix 1 ltr of Dr.Soil Bijopachar in 50ltrs of water and dip the roots of seedlings before transplantation.
Seed treatment: 250 ml for seeds needed for one acre
Soil application: 2 litres or 4 kgs/acreDrip Irrigation: 2 litres or 4 kgs/acre. (Rhizobium japonicum)
Created by: Kavyashree C.N
Picture source : Google images.
Content source :
1. Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofertilizer
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